Home > Aqida, Refutation > Part One:The Words {‘Kalimat’} of Repentance {‘Tawbah’} of Sayyiduna Adam and his ‘Wasilah’ through the Beloved Rasul-Allah!

Part One:The Words {‘Kalimat’} of Repentance {‘Tawbah’} of Sayyiduna Adam and his ‘Wasilah’ through the Beloved Rasul-Allah!

PART ONE:

The Words {‘Kalimat’} of Repentance {‘Tawbah’} of Sayyiduna Adam and his ‘Wasilah’ through the Beloved Rasul-Allah!

The Holy Quran refers to the ‘Tawbah’ of Sayyiduna Adam primarily at two places, one in Surah Baqarah, Ayah-37 and another in Surah Araf, Ayah-23.

The Ayah and its Tafsir are as follows:

Ayah:
فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿٣٧﴾
“Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful.”
{Surah Baqarah; 2: 37}

In the above Ayah, Allah Almighty reveals that He unveiled or taught ‘Kalimat’ or ‘Words’ to Sayyiduna Adam with out specifying the actual words, therefore, the Tafsir of this Ayah mainly revolves around the term ‘Kalimat’ {Words} mentioned in it. We shall therefore discuss the different interpretations of the term ‘Kalimat’ and what does it refers to or stands for.

1st Tafsir:

Some have interpreted ‘Kalimat’ in the above Ayah as follows:

Imam Ibn Kathir states: “Abu Ishaq Sabi’yi narrates from a man from Banu Tamim that: I went to <sayyiduna abdullah=””> Ibn Abbas and asked about the ‘Kalimat’ {Words} which were taught to <sayyiduna></sayyiduna> Adam so he said: “It refers to the learning of the ‘Ahkam’ {Commands and Rulings} of Hajj.”</sayyiduna>

As there is no explicit mention in this Ayah of Sayyiduna Adam’s noble wife Sayyidah Hawwa who had been his partner in committing the mistake, therefore, this Tafsir also stands credible among other Tafsirs.

2nd Tafsir:
Another group of ‘Mufassirin’ have interpreted ‘Kalimat’ in this Ayah with the Ayah of Surah A’raf which states:
قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (7:23)
Imam Ibn Kathir states: “It is said that these ‘Kalimat’ are mentioned in another Ayah of the Holy Quran. It is stated: They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (7:23). This is narrated from Sayyiduna Mujahid, Sayyiduna Said bin Jubayr, Sayyiduna Abul Aliya, Sayyiduna Rabi’ bin Anas, Sayyiduna Hasan <basri></basri>, Sayyiduna Qatada, Sayyiduna Muhammad bin Ka’ab Qurzi, Sayyiduna Khalid bin Ma’dan, Sayyiduna Ata’ Khurasani, and Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.
3rd Tafsir:

There is also difference of opinion among the Mufassirin as regards to the actual ‘Kalimat’ or Words of ‘Dua’ which Allah Almighty taught Sayyiduna Adam and Sayyidah Hawwa to seek His repentance. Therefore,

i. Imam Ibn Kathir Shafai’ states another ‘Dua’ from Sayyiduna Mujahid as follows: “Allah humma La Ilaha Anta Subhanaka……….”

ii. Imam Qurtubi Maliki states in the Tafsir of this Ayah as follows:
“وٱختلف أهل التأويل في الكلمات”
Translation: “The People of Interpretation {‘Ahl ut Tawil’ from Sahaba} Differed over these ‘Kalimat’ <i.e. words=”” which=”” sayyiduna=”” adam=”” learnt=”” from=”” allah=”” almighty=””></i.e.>.”
  Imam Qurtubi then mentions the different ‘Duas’ from the noble ‘Sahaba’ other than the famous ‘Rabbana Zalamna…’ in the Tafsir of the term ‘Kalimat’ {Words which were taught to Sayyiduna Adam}.

Apart from the above Three Tafsirs, Imam Ibn Kathir mentions two other Tafsirs of the term ‘Kalimat’ which are not being presented here to maintain brevity of this article.

4th Tafsir:

The Fourth and also a Valid Tafsir of the term ‘Kalimat’ or the ‘Words’ which Sayyiduna Adam learnt from Allah Almighty are the words of ‘Tawassul’ {Intermediation} which also formed the basis of acceptance of his Repentance.

Therefore, almost all the major Mufassirin have mentioned the Hadiths of Tawassul of Sayyiduna Adam and Sayyidah Hawwa through the Beloved Rasul-Allah in the Tafsir of this Ayah! The details are as follows:
 
i. Imam Qurtubi Maliki after mentioning the different ‘Duas’ other than ‘Rabbana Zalamna..’ which could be the actual ‘Kalimat’ states:

“وقالت طائفة: رأى مكتوباً على ساق العرش «محمد رسول الله» فتشفّع بذلك، فهي الكلمات
Translation: “It is said by (a Group) that Adam saw written on the Shin of the Throne: Muhammad un Rasul-Allah and he Adam “SOUGHT INTERCESSION THROUGH IT” and “THESE ARE THE KALIMAT.” {Tafsir Qurtubi; under 2:37}
ii. The great Mufassir and grammarian, Imam Abu Hayyan Andalusi states in ‘Tafsir Bahr ul Muhit’ as follows:

وقيل: رأى مكتوباً على ساق العرش محمد رسول الله، فتشفع بذلك فهي” “الكلمات
Translation: As regards the Kalimat, it is said that Adam saw written on the Shin of the Throne, Muhammad un Rasul-Allah and he Adam “SOUGHT INTERCESSION THROUGH IT.”
iii. Imam Thalabi states:
“وقال طائفة: إنَّ آدم رأى مكتوباً على ساق العرش: محمَّدٌ رسُولُ اللَّهِ، فتشفَّع به، فهي الكلماتُ” {Tafsir al-Thalabi; 1:67}
“It is said by (a Group) that Adam saw written on the Shin of the Throne: Muhammad un Rasul-Allah and he Adam “SOUGHT INTERCESSION THROUGH IT” and “THESE ARE THE KALIMAT.”

iv. Imam Qazi Iyaz Maliki states in his magnum-opus ‘Al Shifa bi Huquq al Mustafa’:
“الباب الثالث : فيما ورد من صحيح الأخبار و مشهورها”

Translation: “Chapter Three: Sahih and Famous Narrations as transmitted.”

Then he narrates the Hadith of Sayyiduna Adam’s ‘Tawassul’ through the Beloved Prophet and states:
“و هذا عند قائله تأويل قوله تعالى : فتلقى آدم من ربه كلمات فتاب عليه”
Translation: “And it is said that this is the ‘Ta’wil’ of Allah Almighty saying: “{Then Adam received from his Lord Words}” (2:37) 

v. Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti Shafai brought the Hadith of Sayyiduna Umar bin Khattab as the first narration in the interpretation of 2:37 in ‘Tafsir Durr al Manthur’ as follows:
“أخرج الطبراني في المعجم الصغير والحاكم وأبو نعيم والبيهقي كلاهما في الدلائل وابن عساكر عن عمر بن الخطاب قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: لما أذنب آدم الذنب الذي أذنبه، رفع رأسه إلى السماء فقال: أسألك بحق محمد”
Tibrani in ‘Mu’jam as Saghir’; Hakim, Abu Nuaym and Bayhaqi in ‘Dalail’; and Ibn Asakir narrated from <sayyiduna></sayyiduna>Umar bin Khattab that: The Prophet said: “When <sayyiduna></sayyiduna> Adam committed the sin he made, he raised his head toward the Heavens <i.e. throne=””>{‘Arsh’}> and said: ‘I am asking You by the right of Muhammad to forgive me!’</i.e.>

Therefore, the Hadith of Tawassul of Sayyiduna Adam and Sayyidah Hawwa through the Beloved Rasul-Allah is also a valid and proven ‘Tafsir’ {Interpretation} of this Ayah of Surah Baqarah!

We come to Understand from the above Fourth Tafsir of the term ‘Kalimat’ that they may refer to any one of the following or both of them:
i.                   The ‘Kalimat’ may be the ‘Kalima Shahadah’ i.e. ‘La Ilaha Illa Allahu Muhammad un Rasul-Allah’.
ii.                The ‘Kalimat’ may be the words as narrated in the Hadith of Sayyiduna Umar bin Khattab, i.e.I am asking You by the right of Muhammad to forgive me!”

An Important Point to Remember!

Remember! We cannot in any way reject any of the above ‘Tafsirs’ {Interpretations} of this Ayah. People of Knowledge are well aware of the fact that the Ayahs of the Holy Qur’an can have multiple meanings or interpretations so accepting multiple interpretations or meanings or selecting any one ‘Tafsir’ {Interpretation} according to the circumstances or the topic of discussion is valid and proven from numerous sources.

Therefore, the Hadith of Tawassul of Sayyiduna Adam and Sayyidah Hawwa through the Beloved Rasul-Allah is also a valid and proven ‘Tafsir’ {Interpretation} of this Ayah!

Another Understanding of this Ayah!

A mere reading of the above Tafsirs may confuse the readers and make them think that the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Tafsirs from the above Tafsirs are contradictory to each other or oppose each other. But, such is not the case for those who know the definition of ‘Wasilah’ or ‘Tawassul’!

In short, ‘Wasilah’ or ‘Tawassul’ {Intermediation} is a Practice in which a person seeks the recommendation, reference or help of another meritorious person in order to gain acceptance and approval of his Prayer of Repentance {‘Tawbah’} or any of his other ‘Dua’ {Supplication} in the Court of Allah Almighty. This is a simple definition of ‘Wasilah’ or ‘Tawassul’ with out going into its intricate and lengthy description and definition.

So, another Tafsir of the Above of Ayah is:

Allah Almighty taught the ‘Kalimat’ >> ‘Rabbana Zalamna….’ Or any ‘Dua’ to Sayyiduna Adam and Sayyidah Hawwa and they Prayed/ Read this ‘Dua’ to seek ‘Tawbah’ {Repentance} from their Mistake with the ‘Tawassul’ of the Beloved Rasul-Allah! And Allah Almighty accepted their ‘Dua’ and Pardoned them!

In this way, the contradiction between the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Tafsirs of the Ayah automatically gets diminished and results in the reconciliation of the above Tafsirs! Alhamdulillah!

For the Deniers of the 4th Tafsir of the Ayah!

Suppose, even if some of the ignorants or short sighted people do not accept the Fourth Tafsir of this Ayah, then also they can not refute or deny Sayyiduna Adam’s Practice of ‘Tawassul’ through the Beloved Rasul-Allah or any of the Authentic Hadiths on this matter, leave alone numerous other textual and factual Ayahs and Hadiths on the permissibility and desirability of ‘Tawassul’ or ‘Wasilah’ through the Beloved Prophet of Islam!

Also, one can notice that the stubbornness of the Wahhabiya/Salafiya/Ahle Hadith/Deobandiya/Jamat al Islamiya in not accepting this correct and valid Tafsir of the Ayah-37 of Surah Baqarah is a strong indication of their Misguidance and Innovation in ‘Aqidah’; denial of Authentic Tafsirs and Hadiths which oppose their new creed and doctrine; their grudge against an established ‘Aqidah’ of Tawassul; and their tactics to deny the immense merits and lofty status of the Beloved Rasul-Allah!

TO BE CONTD>>>>>>

Categories: Aqida, Refutation
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