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The Majesty of Hazrath Ghause Azam Radiallahu Anhu

The Majesty of Hazrath Ghause Azam and the Glory of the Qadiria Sufi Order

[b.470 AH/1077-8  d.561 AH/1166]

Adapted from an Urdu lecture Shan e Ghous e Azam aur azmat e Silsila e Qadiria by Prof. Dr. Allama Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri 31-05-2004

Translated and abridged by Irshad Soofi

Allah Y says in the 16th Sura al-Nahl [The Bee] النَّحْل in verse 60:

وَلِلّهِ الْمَثَلُ الأَعْلَىَ

To Allah Y applies the highest excellence:

The Glory of Allah Y is the Exalted

Allah Y says that ْمَثَلُ الأَ massalul a’laa is for Him. ْمَثَلُ الأَ massalul a’laa means in Urdu, ‘Aur Allah Y ki, sab se bari shaan heh. The Greatest Glory (shaan) is Allah Y’s. The question arises as to what or whom is the Greatest Glory (shaan) of Allah Y? It is important to understand this. Keep in mind that Prophethood (nabuwwah) is the proof of Divine Sublimity and Transcendent Majesty (Uluwiat). None saw Divine Sublimity and Greatness (Uluwiat) but many saw Prophethood (nabuwwah). Similarly sainthood (wilayah)[1] is the proof of Prophethood (nabuwwah). Remember the Prophet is a sign of Allah Y’s Majesty (shaan) similarly the Wali is a sign of his prophet’s majesty (shaan).

وَكُلُّ وَلِيٍّ لَهُ قَدَمٌ وَّاِنِّىْ

عَلى قَدَمِ النَّبِىْ بَدْرِاَلكَمَالِ

Wakullu waliyin lahu qadamun wa inni

Alaa qadamin nabbiyi badril kamaali

Each Saint follows in the footsteps of a Prophet,

And I follow in the footsteps of the Holy Prophet, the Full Moon of Perfection.

124000 prophets that were sent from Hazrath Adam u to Hazrath Isa u every one of them had great saints in their community (Ummah). Hazrath Sulaiman u had a saint of the caliber of Hazrath Asif Bin Barkhiya[2] t who could produce the Throne of the Queen Bilkis, from thousands of miles away before the blink of the eye. ‘Allama Sayyid Mahmud Al-Alusi t [3] writes that Shaykh al-Akbar Muhayyuddeen ibn al-Arabi[4] t said:

“Asif bin Barkhiya did tasarruf (Spiritual Disposal whereby spiritual energy is directed to the sphere of possibility ) with the throne of Bilqis. He made it disappear from its location and appear before Sulaiman u and nobody realized this apart from Him who knows everything. The time that it disappeared [from Bilqis] was exactly the same time as it appeared [before Sulaiman]. Everything happened in one moment of time. In chronological terms, Asif only performed one action because the accomplished people gain a state where their speech is granted immediate action by the announcement of “Kun” by Allah Y [5]

No other prophet had a saint like Abu Muhammad Hazrath Muhayuddin Abd’ al Qaadir Jilaani Ghaws al-Azam, Mahboob e Subhaani t because no Prophet could match the Holy Prophet Muhammad Mustafa e. As majestic is the prophet of the time so majestic is the saint, who is the proof (burhaan) and reflection of his prophet.  So, the greater the prophethood the greater the sainthood thus Prophethood (nabuwwah) reached the peak of excellence (nuktae kamaal) with the Holy Prophet Muhammad e and it can not go beyond that status achieved by the Holy Prophet e (muqaame Muhammadi).  In the same way in the Prophethood of Muhammad e, the peak of sainthood cannot go beyond the status of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t. Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t is the Sultan of The Saints[6] (Sultaan al-Awliya) just as the Holy Prophet Muhammad e is the Sultan of The Prophets (Sultaan al-Ambiya). So every prophet is the Grandeur (shaan) of Allah Y and the Chosen One (Mustafa) is the greatest Grandeur (shaan) of all.
So Allah
Y stated the 16th Sura al-Nahl [The Bee] in verse 60:

وَلِلّهِ الْمَثَلُ الأَعْلَىَ

The Grandeur (shaan) of Allah Y is the Exalted

So the Chosen One (Mustafa), the Holy Prophet Muhammad e is the greatest example of the Greatness (shaan) of Allah Y. The indicator (unwaan) of the Greatness (shaan) of Allah Y is Muhammad e. The indicator (unwaan) of the Mercy (rahmah), Remembrance (Zikr) and Love (muhabbah), of Allah Y is Muhammad e. What is the Greatness (shaan) of the Holy Prophet e? Allah Y stated the 13th Sura ar-Ra‘d (Thunder) الرَّعْد in verse 28:

أَلاَ بِذِكْرِ اللّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ

Know that it is the remembrance of Allah Y   that brings calm to the hearts

So hearts find contentment in the zikr of Allah Y. Imam Samarqandi t[7] reports and Qadi Iyadh writes that, Hazrath Mujaahid t, the Ta’bieen, asked Hazrath Abdullah ibn Abbas t as to when the Holy Qur’aan says that:

 ‘In the remembrance of Allah Y hearts find tranquility’,

  So what is the remembrance of Allah Y? He answered:

 ‘Muhammad e

So Allah Y is saying:

‘You want the hearts tranquility become the true lovers of the Holy Prophet Muhammad e for My remembrance (zikr) is Muhammad e and in him is tranquility for all hearts.   Thus the remembrance (zikr) of the Holy Prophet e is the remembrance (zikr) of AllahY.

One of the titles of the Holy Prophet e is The Remembrance of AllahY (zikrullah). AllahY says in a Sacred Tradition (Hadith e Qudsi) that is in Ash-shifa bi Ta’rif Huquq al-Mustafa,[8] كتاب الشفاء بتعريف حقوق المصطفىof Imam al- Qadi Iyaadh[9]

 القاضي عياض بن موسى

Ja altu ka zikram min zikri fa man zakaraka zakarani

O My Beloved! I have made you My remembrance, so whosoever remembers thee, in fact has remembered Me’.

So the remembrance of the Holy Prophet e is in actuality the remembrance of AllahY.

 

When we say in salaah, ‘guide us on the straight path’.[Ihdinus siratal mustaqim] and enquire as to which is the siratal mustaqim? The ta’biee Hazrath Abul Aalia t and Imam Hassan Basri t enquired what is the siratal mustaqim from Hazrath Abdullah ibn Abbas t, the greatest mufassir[10] of Holy Qur’aan amongst the Sahaba. His answer is recorded by Imams Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (224AH/310AH)[11]

 أبي جعفر محمد بن جرير الطبري and Imam Haakim (d.403AH)[12] in Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain or Mustadrak al-Hakim[13] المستدرك على الصحيحين is that he said:

‘The siratal mustaqim is Muhammad e’.

This commentary was given by the Imam of Commentators of the Holy Qur’aan (Imam al-Mufassireen), Hazrath Abdullah ibn Abbas t 1400 years ago. Therefore I say that every indicator (unwaan) of the Grandeur (shaan) of Allah Y is Muhammad e.

 

Allah Y stated the 3rd Sura Āl ‘Imrān (the Family of ‘Imrān) آل عِمْرَانin verse 103:

وَاعْتَصِمُواْ بِحَبْلِ اللّهِ جَمِيعًا

And hold fast to the rope of Allah Y all of you together

When Hazrath Abdullah ibn Abbas t, was asked as to what is the Rope which Allah Y? He said:

 The Holy Prophet Muhammad e is the rope of Allah Y.

The Rope of Allah Y (hablillah) is Muhammad e. The Remembrance of Allah Y (zikrullah) is Muhammad e. The Path of Allah Y (siratullah) is Muhammad e. The Light of Allah Y (nurullah) is Muhammad e. The Respect of Allah Y (it’atullah) is Muhammad e. The Love of Allah Y (muhabatullah) is Muhammad e. The Face of Allah Y (wajhullah) is Muhammad e. Don’t say our Creator (Rabb) is Muhammad e and Muhammad e is the Creator (Rabb) but besides that everything else is Muhammad e.  The Way of Life and Religion (din) is Muhammad e. The Prescription to the Way of Life and Religion (Holy Qur’aan) is Muhammad e. The Faith (imaan) is Muhammad e. Submission (Islam) is Muhammad e. Direction (Kaaba o Qibla) is Muhammad e and everything else is charity (khairaat) received from him. The direction he chose became the Qibla. He gave us the Holy Qur’aan. He gave us Tauhid. 1400yrs have passed, none has seen Allah Y yet over a billion proclaim Allah Y is one relying on his evidence. If this is your belief (aqa’aid) then you have faith (imaan) everything else is Priesthood (Mullahiat). Rectify your belief (aqa’aid). The Chosen One (Mustafa), the Holy Prophet Muhammad e is the greatest Grandeur (shaan) of Allah Y.

 

In the community (Ummah) of the Holy Prophet e every wali is a sign of his, i.e. the Holy Prophet e majesty (shaan) and Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t is the greatest Manifestation of the Holy Prophet e majesty (shaan).
Those that want to see the majesty of Allah
Y must look at the Holy Prophet Muhammad e whilst those in the Ummah wanting to see the shaan of the Holy Prophet e must look at Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t. In the World of Prophethood (kainate nabuwat) the Holy Prophet e   is Allah Y’s shaan. Whilst in the World of Sainthood (kainate wilayat) Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t is the Holy Prophet e’s shaan. This is the basis of the topic that should be kept in mind.

 

In the World of Souls (a’lame arwah) Allah Y gathered all the souls of the Prophets as mentioned in Holy Qur’aan in the 3rd Sura, Āl ‘Imrān (the Family of ‘Imrān) آل عِمْرَان, Verse 81. Allah Y took a pledge from them:

وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللّهُ مِيثَاقَ النَّبِيِّيْنَ لَمَا آتَيْتُكُم مِّن كِتَابٍ وَحِكْمَةٍ ثُمَّ جَاءكُمْ رَسُولٌ مُّصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ لَتُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهِ وَلَتَنصُرُنَّهُ

And, (O Beloved, recall the time) when Allah Y   took a firm covenant from the Prophets: ‘When I give you the Book and Wisdom and then there comes to you the Messenger (who is exalted in glory above all and) who shall validate the Books you will have with you, you shall then, most certainly, believe in him and most surely help him.’

Allah Y speaks to this gathering of the souls of the prophets and the topic is the Holy Prophet Muhammad e.

 

Allah Y took a pledge from them to remain subservient to and pave the way for him and submit to him.

They replied:

قَالُواْ أَقْرَرْنَا

We agree

Then Allah Y replied:

قَالَ فَاشْهَدُواْ وَأَنَاْ مَعَكُم مِّنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ

He said: “Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses.”

Allah Y himself bore witness to this pledge. Remember the point that when it came to the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet e all the prophets had to bend their necks in submission. Imam Al-Qastallani[14] (851H/ 1448|923H/1517), in Al-Muwahib al-ladunniyya bi al-minah al-Muhammadiyya[15] says when this covenant was being done a light shone over all the prophets like a cloud of light above them. The souls of the prophets enquired as to what was that light and Allah Y answered that this is the light of the one they pledged their subservience to. They all bent their necks in submission to the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet Muhammad e and in the world every saint bent his neck in subservience to the sainthood of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t. Besides the Holy Prophet Muhammad e the prophets bent their necks for no prophet and besides Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t the saints bent their necks for no other saint. One submission took place in the World of Prophethood (kainate nabuwat) and the other in the World of Sainthood (kainate wilayat).

 

When we praise Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t and call out to him we are praising the magnificence of the Holy Prophet Muhammad e and when we praise and call out to the Holy Prophet Muhammad e we are praising the magnificence of Allah Y.

 

Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t‘s Status as Saint (wilayah) and Status as Supreme Helper (Ghawth) is of the highest degree being wilayate uzma and ghawthiate uzma. Allah Y made this apparent when he was divinely ordained to proclaim his famous utterance, which he said as one ‘Whose faculty of speech Allah Y had become’,  

قَدْمِىْ هذِه عَلى رَقْبَةِ كُلِّ وَلِيىِّ الله

Qaddami Hazihi alla raqabati Kulli Waliyyillah

“My foot is on the neck of all Aulia“.

 Every prophet was blessed with miracles by Allah Y but the abundance of miracles was given to the Holy Prophet Muhammad e. Allah Y states in the Holy Qur’aan in the 108th Sura, al-Kauthar [The Abundance of Good] الْکَوْثَر, verse 1:

إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ

We have indeed bestowed the Kauthar* upon you (O Beloved Muhammad)

(*Infinite excellence/ the greatest number of followers / the sweet pond on the Day of Resurrection)

In the Majesty of Prophethood the Kauthar is given to the Holy Prophet Muhammad e in the Majesty of Sainthood the Kauthar is given to Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t. Every miracle emanating from the saint is counted as the miracle of his prophet for the saint reflects the prophet’s majesty (shaan) and similarly the prophet’s miracle reflects the power (qudrat) of Allah Y. The Holy Prophet e has been given an abundance of followers (kasrate ummat). The Holy Prophet e   has stated that:

 ‘There will be 120 lines of people in heaven (jannat) being the inmates of paradise of the 124000 prophets and of these 80 lines will be of my followers’.

The Holy Prophet e has been given an Abundance of Followers (kasrate ummat) whilst Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t has been given the Abundance of Disciples (kasrate murideen). Those who Testify the Faith (kalima) are counted in the community of the Holy Prophet e (Ummah) and those that came before his physical appearance in the earthly realm but desired to see him are also counted in his community. Every prophet is of the community of the Holy Prophet Muhammad e.  Similarly every person that pledged allegiance on the blessed hand of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t are his disciples and every wali that submitted are his disciples. Those that verbally express that they are disciples of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t are counted as his disciple. This is his majesty (shaan). This is similar to the bond of marriage where a verbal acceptance creates a bond.

 

I draw your attention to something special. Every Qadri is the disciple of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t but every Chishti, Naqshbandi, Suharwardi, Rifai and Shadilyya are his disciples.  Disciples of very spiritual order are his disciples. Let me explain this. He said:

قَدْمِىْ هذِه عَلى رَقْبَةِ كُلِّ وَلِيىِّ الله

Qaddami Hazihi alla raqabati Kulli Waliyyillah

“My foot is on the neck of all Aulia“.

Chishtia

When our Master uttered this statement 313 Aulia in this world and in the world of souls etc. bent their necks. At this time Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti Ajmeri t was in a young man in a cave in Hind in the mountain of Khurasan and he said:

قَدَمَاكَ عَلى رَأسِىْ وَعَلى عَيْنِى

Qadamaka ala ra’asi wa ala ai’ni

“Your foot, is on my eye and head (not only my neck).”[16]

Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t said, ‘Every wali’. He did not say, ‘on the neck of the Aulia of my spiritual order’. Thus every wali became his disciple. The author of Qalaid al-Jawahir[17] , Shaykh Abd al-Qaadir Ebili t other great scholars state that Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti Ajmeri t spent 70 days in the Holy Court of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t and received special spiritual effusion (fayz) from him[18]. Khwaja Saheb t had requested the spiritual governance of Iraq but Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t but he received the reply that it had been given to Hazrath Shahabuddin Umar Suharwardi[19] t but he is giving him Hind (Indo/Pak). So every Chishti is indebted to Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t.

Suharwardia

Hazrath Shahabuddin Umar Suharwardi t, amongst the adherents of his Sufi order are the famous poet Shaykh Saadi Shirazi[20] t and Ghaws Hazrath Baha-ud-din Zakariya[21] بہاؤ الدین زکریا:  Hazrath Shahabuddin Umar Suharwardi t says:

 ‘At the age of 14 years and I had attained all the external knowledge and my Shaykh and uncle Hazrath Shaykh Abu Najib al-Suharwardi t took me to the Holy Presence of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t for fayz[22]. Irrespective of which Sufi Order one is a disciple in all go to Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t for special illumination. Hazrath Shahabuddin Umar Suharwardi t continues, ‘Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t rubbed his blessed hand on my chest and I was emptied of all knowledge’. This was spiritual detoxification for the chalkboard has to be cleansed to write something new on it. The external knowledge was wiped off to be replaced with Divine Knowledge (ma’rifa)[23]. He says, ‘my chest overflowed with ma’rifa’.

So, all that receive fayz from the Suharwardi Sufi Order it is the blessing of the hand (dast) of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam Dastagir t.  

 

Naqshbandi

The authors of Qala’id-al-Jawahir (“Necklaces of Gems”)[24] and Bahjat al-Asrar (Splendor of the Mysteries)[25] has written that Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t once was on a journey and turned towards Bukhara, in Central Asia, present Uzbekistan the birthplace of  Hazrath Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband[26] t and said, ‘ 107 years after me my son Bahauddin will be born in this city of Bukhara’.

insert: A 150 years after the death of Sheikh Sayyiduna Abdul Qaadir Jilaani t, people asked Sultan Khwaja Sayyiduna Bahauddin Naqshband t “”Ghause al-Azam Abdul Qaadir t said, “My foot is on the neck of all the saints”, what do you think about this?”” Hazrath Shah Naqshband said, “May Hazrath Abdul Qaadir Jilaani t’s foot be upon my eyes and my vision.”

 

One day Sultan Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband t was traveling in the desert and he met Al-Khizr u who within seconds transported him to the spiritual presence of Shaykh Abdul Qaadir Jilaani t. Khwaja Bahauddin (whose name was not yet known as Naqshband) said, “O one who holds hands in the universe, hold my hand! So I will you holder of hands.” [In bayat, one holds the hand of the Pir to receive Almighty Allah Y’s blessing and when someone needed to be rescued, they held out their hand]. Shaykh Sayyiduna Abdul Qaadir Jilaani t put his hand on Khwaja Bahauddin’s heart and said, “O you who will beautify of the worlds, hold my adornment so that they can call you Naqshband [the one who adorns]”. And then Khwaja Bahauddin recited the following poem, which is inscribed on both the tombs of Abdul Qaadir Jilaani t and Bahauddin Naqshband t

“The King of this world and the hereafter is Shah Abdul Qaadir

The head of the children of Adam is Shah Abdul Qaadir.

Sun, moon, heavens, the throne and the pen,

They all get their light from the heart of Abdul Qaadir.”

Courtesy: Qadiri Rifai Tariqa http://www.qadiri-rifai.org

He is given his fayz before his birth. So even Naqshbandis are blessed by Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t

  Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi[27] t, Mujaddid Alf Saani or the `Reviver Of The Second Millennium’. [1564-1624] in his Maktubaat-e-Imam Rabbani writes[28] :

 ‘Allah Y has made Hazrath Ali t the source of sainthood (mamba e wilayah) and the Spiritual Treasure House[29]  [it was shared by Hazrath Fatimah y, Imam Hassan t and Imam Husayn t as its direct legatees.[30]] Thereafter it was filtered down to the Imams [Imam Zaynul Aberdeen t, Imam Baqir t, Imam Jafar Saadiq t, Imam Musa Kaazim t, Imam Ali Reza t etc]. He states there were eleven Imams before Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t. The Fountain of Sainthood when it passed to Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t [held as a trust] it will remain with him till the advent of Imam Mahdi u[31].

Ismail Dehlvi the grandson of Waliyullah Muhaddith Dehlawi t (passed away 1176 A.H, 1762 C.E) who lost the true path under the influence of the Wahabbi, by reading Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Najdi’s literature, writes:

Till qiyamah no wali can be a wali until from the Office Of Sainthood he gets the approval the stamp of Hazrath Ali t and Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t.

Other Sufi Orders

In Arabia two Sufi Orders are famous. One of them the Shadhilyya, the Imam being Hazrath Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili (d. 656 AH/1258 CE) [32] t whose famous litany (wazifa) Litany of the Sea (Hizbul Bahr) is read by many Sufis who is buried in Egypt. He is the disciple (murid) and Spiritual Successor (khalifa) of Shaykh Abu Madyan Ghaws al-Maghribi t or Sidi Abu Madyan Shuayb ibn al-Hussein al-Ansari (1126-1198/594 AH)[33]. Abu Madyan Ghaws al-Maghribi t is also a khalifa of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t. Shaykh Abu Madyan Ghaws al-Maghribi t was in Mina performing Hajj when he was blessed with the companionship (suhbat) of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t. He then sent his murids to Baghdad to benefit from the suhbat of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t.

 They were present when Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t proclaimed;

  قَدْمِىْ هذِه عَلى رَقْبَةِ كُلِّ وَلِيىِّ الله

Qaddami Hazihi alla raqabati Kulli Waliyyillah

“My foot is on the neck of all Aulia“.

Shaykh Abu Madyan Ghaws al-Maghribi t was in Fez in Morocco and he bent his neck.

 

Shaykh Abu’l-Abbas al-Mursi[34] t (d. 1288) whose Sufi Order is called Mursia in Egypt. He is the murid of Hazrath Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili t thus the grand-disciple of Abu Madyan Ghaws al-Maghribi t, who is also a khalifa of Hazrath Ghaus al-Azam t. Shaykh Abu’l-Abbas al-Mursi t is  the Spiritual Guide of the compiler of Qasida Burda, Imam Sharfuddin Bosiri t one of the great Aulia and he says

لو حجب عنی رسول اﷲ صلی اﷲ عليه وسلم طرفة عين ما عددتُ نفسی من المُسلمين.

Low hujbi anni Rasulullah e tar fattu ainin ma additu nafsi min zumratil muslimeen

If for one moment I don’t see the blessed face of the Holy Prophet Muhammad e   in front of me, then at that moment I don’t consider myself a Muslim.[35]

Refai

About Hazrath Sayyid Ahmad ar-Rifai[36] t it is reported in Bahjat al-Asrar (Splendor of the Mysteries) that he was journeying through Egypt he suddenly bent his neck and said , “Your foot is on my eye and head not only my neck”, for he had heard the proclamation. 

 

Thus all Sufi Orders are linked to Abu Muhammad Hazrath Muhayuddin Abd’ al Qaadir Jilaani Ghaws al-Azam, Mahboob e Subhaani t. Throughout the world this order has spread and wilayat is only conferred with the stamp of Abu Muhammad Hazrath Muhayuddin Abd’ al Qaadir Jilaani Ghaws al-Azam, Mahboob e Subhaani t.

 

Translated and abridged by Irshad Soofi Siddiqui

Rabi as-Saani 11, 1427

May 10, 2006

 

I the insignificant have tried my best to render these great speeches into English for the benefit of the youth who are deprived of gems due to not understanding Urdu. I apologize to the great Ulama if I fail in rendering the message, as it ought to be rendered.  I have also researched the various Qur’aanic Verses and Ahadith quoted and tried to give references where possible. All praise is due to Allah and all shortcomings are mine.

 

Irshad Soofi Siddiqui
Chishti Nizami Habibi
Khanqae Habibia Soofia
189 East Street, Pietermaritzburg, Kwazulu-Natal, Republic of South Africa

 


 

[1] Wilayah: Sainthood. Wilayah is the sainthood of the great friends of Allah Y (awliya). It is a Divine gift and the height of human perfec­tion. The distinguishing mark and basis of sainthood is gnosis (ma’rifa); not holiness or piety. The friend (wali) upon whom sainthood (wilayah) is bestowed has no choice in this. All is the Grace of Allah Y. The degree of his Knowledge of Allah Y, through which his sainthood descended, is also a gift from Allah Y. Wilayah is privacy with Allah Y. This privacy is indicated in the words of Hazrath Muhammad e “There is a time for me with Allah, in which neither the nearest angel nor a sent Prophet is contained” Wilayah is “seeing Allah Y through Allah Y “. The Aulia are the true ulama and heirs of the Prophet. Through them the fra­grant musk and the sweet honey of the Teaching of the Holy Prophet Muhammad e ” continues to fill the world. Within wilayah there is a hierarchical order at whose peak is the Ghaws or qutb.

[2] Ibn `Abbas said, “This was Asif, the scribe of Sulayman. It was also narrated by Muhammad bin Ishaq from Yazid bin Ruman that he was Asif bin Barkhiya’ and he was a truthful believer who knew the Greatest Name of Allah. Qatadah said: “He was a believer among the humans, and his name was Asif.

[3] Mahmud al-Alusi (1217 AH- 1270 AH) (محمود الألوسي‎) was an Islamic scholar. His full name was Imam Mahmud ibn Abd Allah al-Husayni al-Alusi al-Baghdadi. He was the Mufti of of his time.

 

[4] Muayyuddeen Ibn ‘Arabi (ابن عربي‎) (July 28, 1165 – November 10, 1240) was an Andalusian Arab Sufi and philosopher. His full name was Abu ‘Abdullāh Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-`Arabi al-Haatimi al-Taa’i (أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن العربي الحاتمي الطائي). He died at the age of 76 on 22 Rabi’ II 638 AH/November 10, 1240CE, and his tomb in Damascus is still an important place of pilgrimage

[5] Ruh al-Ma’ani, vol.19, p.185

[6] Sultaan al-Awliya: This emphasizes his supremacy as the Ghawth  above all other orders of sanctity

[7] Abu Mansur Moturidi Samarkandi (870 – 944) he was the most knowledgeable man among all scholars. Then he was nicknamed as “Sultan Al-Muizzin” (the “King of the Respected scholars”). His image was adorned with evident and Sufi knowledge. A striving for learning the laws of the Universe gave a birth to a science called Tavkhid or Kalaam, theological science. He is one of the founders of this science.

[8] Kitab Ash-shifa bi Ta’rif Huquq al-Mustafa, (كتاب الشفاء بتعريف حقوق المصطفى‎, Healing by the recognition of the Rights of the Chosen one), of Qadi ‘Iyad (d. 544H / 1149CE) is perhaps the most frequently used and commented upon handbook in which Muhammad’s life, his qualities and his miracles are described in every detail. Generally known by its short title, Ash-Shifa, this work was so highly admired throughout the Muslim world that it soon acquired a sanctity of its own for it is said: “If Ash-Shifa is found in a house, this house will not suffer any harm…when a sick person reads it or it is recited to him, Allah Y., will restore his health.”

[9] Qadi Ayyad bIn Musa  (القاضي عياض بن موسى‎,  or  Qadi Iyad) or Abu al-Fadl Ayyad ben Amer ben Moussa ben Ayyad ben Mohammed ben Abdellah ben Moussa ben Ayyad al-Yahsobi al-Sabti

 (أبو الفضل عياض بن موسى بن عياض بن عمرون بن موسى بن عياض بن محمد بن عبد الله بن موسى بن عياض اليحصبي السبتي, born 1083 in Gibraltar – 1149) was the great imam of Ceuta and, later, a high judge (Qadi) in Grenada. He was one of the most famous scholars of Maliki law.

[10] The word mufassir (pl. mufassirun) is the term used for the person doing the Tafsir, i.e. the ‘exegete’ or ‘commentator’.

[11] Abi J’afar Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923 CE) أبي جعفر محمد بن جرير الطبري) was one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian historians and exegetes of the Qur’an, most famous for his Tarikh al-Tabari (History of the Prophets and Kings) and Tafsir al-Tabari The commentary on the Qur’an – (Arabic: al-musamma Jami al-bayan fi ta’wil al-Qur’an or Tafsir al-Tabari).

 

[12] Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishaburi (d. 403 AH) was a Sunni scholar and the leading traditionist of his age, frequently referred to as the “Imam of the Muhaddithin” or the “Muhaddith of Khorasan.”

[13] Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain or Mustadrak al-Hakim (المستدرك على الصحيحين )) is a five volume hadith collection written by Hakim al-Nishaburi d. 405H.

[14] Imam Shihab al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, al-Qastallani al-Qutaybi al-Shafi’i  also renowned as Qutb al-din al-Qastallani.

[15] Al-Muwahib al-ladunniyya bi al-minah al-Muhammadiyya is a book by Islamic scholar Al-Qastallani . The book was commented in Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah (8 volumes) by Muhammad al-Zurqani

[16] Moulana Abdur Rehman Jami, in his famous books ‘Nafahat-ul-Inns’, has said that Hazrat Khawaja Mohiyuddin Chishti was a great devotee of Hazrat Ghousul Azam. When he spiritually heard his dictum of “my foot is on the neck of all Walis” he replied that it was on his eyes as well

[17] Qalaaid al-Jawahir Shaykh Muhammad ibn Yahya at-Taafdifii

[18] Khwaja Saheb was born in 536 AH and at this stage Ghaws Paak who was born in 470 AH was 66 years old. When Ghaws Paak passed away in 561 Khwaja Saheb was 45 years old. Between 536 AH and 561 AH they were together in this earthly realm for 25 years.

[19] Hadrat Shaykh Shihab al-Din `Umar b. `Abd Allah al-Suharwardi (539/1145- 632/1234) He was the founder of the great Suharwardi Sufi order, which still has many adherents today.  Shihab al-Din’s teacher was his uncle Abu Najb Suhrawardi (d.1168), rector of the Nizamiya academy and an authority on Hadith.

[20] Abū Muṣliḥ bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī (1184 – 1283/1291?), better known by his pen-name as Sa’adī (Persian: سعدی), was one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. He is recognized not only for the quality of his writing, but also for the depth of his social thoughts. His best known works are Bustan (“The Orchard”) completed in 1257 and Gulistan (“The Rose Garden”) in 1258. Bustan is entirely in verse (epic metre) and consists of stories aptly illustrating the standard virtues recommended to Muslims (justice, liberality, modesty, contentment) as well as of reflections on the behaviour of dervishes and their ecstatic practices. Gulistan is mainly in prose and contains stories and personal anecdotes. The text is interspersed with a variety of short poems, containing aphorisms, advice, and humorous reflections. Saadi demonstrates a profound awareness of the absurdity of human existence. The fate of those who depend on the changeable moods of kings is contrasted with the freedom of the dervishes.

[21] Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya (Persian: بہاؤ الدین زکریا) was a Sufi of Suhrawardiyya order (tariqa). His full name was Al-Sheikh Al-Kabir Sheikh-ul-Islam Baha-ud-Din Abu Muhammad Zakaria Al-Qureshi Al-Asadi Al Hashmi. In Tariqat he was the disciple of Renowned Sufi Master Shaikh Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi who awarded him Khilafat only after 17 days of stay at his Khanqaah in Baghdaad.

[22] al-fayd: Divine effusion or overflow or emanation. One of the ways of gaining knowledge is through the Divine effusion. It is a bestowal from Allah to the heart of His perfect ‘slave’, the Perfect Man. The world itself remains in existence due to this overflowing of the lights of His Self-manifestation.

[23] Ma’rifa: Divine Knowledge. Ma’rifa is a light, which Allah Y casts into the heart of whomsoever He Will. This is the true knowledge, which comes through “unveiling” (kashf), “witnessing” (mushahadah) and “tasting” (dhauq). This knowledge is from Allah Y, it is not Allah Y Himself, because He Is Unknowable in His Essence. The trial on the Sufi Path of Return is comprised of Fear (makhafah), Knowledge (ma’rifa) and Love (mahabbah). Fear leads to Knowledge, which leads to Unconditional Love of Allah Y It is said that spiritual struggle (mujahadah) is child’s play whilst ma’rifa is men’s work.

 

[24] by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Tadifi al-Hanbali on the Marvelous Exploits of the Crown of the Saints, the Treasure-trove of the Pure, the Sultan of the Saints, the Sublime Pivot, Shaykh  Muhyi’d-din ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilaani t.

[25]Bahjat al-Asrar (Splendour of the Mysteries). This is the first major biography of the Shaykh from which others have benefited.

 Imam Abu’l Hasan ‘Ali ash-Shattanawfi Nuruddin Alli Ibn Jaleel t of Egypt (passed away 713 A.H, 1314 C.E) who  aside from being a great Sufi, he was also considered to be a great Imam of Qiraat. It is reported that he received his spiritual training under the guidance of Hazrath Sayyidi Abu Swaleh Nasr t, the great grandson of Hazrath Ghous al-Azam t

[26] He was born in the month of Muharram, in 717 H. /1317 CE, in the village of Qasr al-‘Arifan near Bukhara.

[27] The first of the great reformers, Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi al-Farooqi an-Naqshbandi, was born in Sirhind on June 26, 1564. He belonged to a devout Muslim family that claimed descent from Hazrath Umar Faruq t. It was not until he was 36 years old that he went to Delhi and joined the Naqshbandi Silsila under the discipleship of Khwaja Baqi Billah.

[28] Maktub Number 123

[29] The Spiritual Treasure House whose fountainhead is Hazrath Ali t is shared by Hazrath Fatimah y, Imam Hassan t ,Imam Husayn t as its direct recipients or legatees.

[30] Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi t, Maktubat (9:173#123)

[31] [31] In Malfoozat-e- Ala Hazrat by Imam Ahmad Raza Khan t it is mentioned with reference to the Sheik Muhayuddin Ibne Arabi t that there would be three Ghausul Azam till the Day of Judgment. They would have their subordinate in each time that would be called as Ghaus. The first Ghaus-ul-Azam (Ghausiate- Kubra) is the Holy Prophet Muhammad e . He had two ministers. One of them was Hazrath Abu Bakr Siddique t and second one was Hazrath Umar t. After the Holy Prophet e Hazrath Abu Bakr Siddique t was appointed the place of Ghaus and Hazrath Umar and Hazrath Uthman t his ministers. After Hazrath Abu Bakr Siddique t Hazrath Umar t was Ghous of his time and Hazrath Uthman t and Hazrath Ali t were his ministers. After Hazrath Umar t Hazrath Uthman t became Ghaus and Hazrath Ali t and his son Hazrath Hassan t were his ministers. After him Hazrath Ali t became Ghaus and Hazrath Hassan and Hazrath Hussain t became his ministers. And so on. Then came the time of second Ghaus-ul- Azam, Hazrath Sheikh Abdul Qaadir Jilaani t . He will remain Ghaus-ul Azam till the time of Hazrath Imam Mahdi u. During this period the subordinates of Hazrath Sheikh Abdul Qadr Jilaani t will come continuously till the time of Imam Mahdi u and Hazrath Imam Mahdi u would be third and last Ghause Azam. Hazrath Sheikh Abdul Qadri Jilaani t mentioned signs of Ghaus in his book Fatuh ul-Ghaib.

 

[32] Shaykh Abu’l-Hassan ash-Shadhili was born in the north of Morocco in 1175 into a family of peasant labourers. Moulay Abdas-Salam ibn Mashish, the great Moroccan spiritual master is  another disciple of Abu Madyan, who transmitted his teachings to Abu-l Hassan ash Shadhili.. Shaykh Abu’l-Abbas al-Mursi (d. 1288), who succeeded Shaykh ash-Shadhili as the next spiritual master of the Order, was asked about the knowledge of his spiritual master and replied, ‘He gave me forty sciences. He was an ocean without a shore.’ Shaykh Abu’l-Hassan Ash-Shadhili died in the south of Egypt near the Red Sea while he was on his way to the pilgrimage in Mecca in 1258.

[33] Sidi Abu Madyan Shuayb ibn al-Hussein al-Ansari (1126-1198) was a Sufi teacher, scholar and writer and poet. He is the single most important founder of Sufism in the Maghreb and Andalusia. He was born in Cantillama in the region of Sevilla and died in Tlemcen. He was the teacher of Abdeslam Ben Mchich and through Ben Mchich of Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili. Still young Abu Madyan moved to Morocco where he lived in Ceuta, Tanger and Marrakech. He received his religious education in Fes, where he underwent the influence of the teachings of Al-Jilani, Abu Yaza and Al-Ghazali (through Ibn Hirzihim et Abu Bakr Ibn al Arabi]], master of Abu Yaza. after his pilgrimage to Mecca and studies in the Middle East, he returned to teach in Bougie (now Algeria). He is the patron saint of Tlemcen. His mausoleum and the nearby mosque in that city are masterpieces of Merinid art. Ibn Arabi called Abu Madyan ‘the teacher of teachers’.

[34] Al-Mursi Abu’l-‘Abbas (1219 – 1286 CE) (المرسي أبو العباس‎) is a famous Sufi saint from Al-Andalus who later in his life moved to Alexandria in Egypt. His complete name is Shahab al-Din Abu’l-‘Abbas Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn Mohammad al-Ansari al-Mursi. He was born in Murcia in Muslim Spain in 616 H (1219 CE) to a wealthy family in the trading business and was well educated in religious sciences. In Tunisia, Shahab heard about Shaykh Abu’l-Hassan ash-Shadhili, founder of the Shadhiliyya Sufi brotherhood, and he accompanied him when the latter moved to Alexandria in Egypt. Many Muslim scholars from Spain chose to live in Alexandria as Muslim Spain gradually fell under the domination of hostile Christian forces. Al-Shadhili was fond of Shahab who was becoming one of his best students. Abu’l-‘Abbas al-Mursi (the Murcian) – as Shahab became known in Alexandria – married al Shadhili’s daughter and had two daughters and a son from her. He lived 43 years in Alexandria as a Muslim teacher until he died in 686 H (1286 AD).

[35] (رُوح المعانی، 22 : 36)

[36] Hazrath Sayyid Ahmad ar Rifai t [512 A.H/1119 A.D- 578 A.H. (1183 A.D.]

 

 

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