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What do the scholars say about the issue that in the city of Morees, there is a piece of cloth from the Ka’aba that measures two feet by one and a quarter feet.?

September 11, 2012 Leave a comment
Question: 13th Dhu’l Hijjah, 1308 AH
What do the scholars say about the issue that in the city of Morees, there is a piece of
cloth from the Ka’aba that measures two feet by one and a quarter feet. It is hung on the
wall that is in front of people when they face the Qibla. When they finish their five daily
prayers, they kiss this piece and after the Jum’a prayer, there is a massive rush of people
who gather to kiss the cloth. Some will kiss it four times, some more and some less. Due
to the rush, some even miss out. They believe it to be a sacred cloth and try their utmost
to get to it. Those who are learned kiss it out of reverence and I do not know with what
belief the lay public kiss it. Following in one another’s footsteps, they exaggerate hugely
in this regard. Is this action worthy of reward or is it worthy of punishment due to other
reasons? Bayyinu Tujiru.
Answer: Bismillahi’r Rahmani’r Raheem. Nahmaduhu wa nusallai ‘ala rasulihi’l kareem.
The kiss of respect is considered to be part of respect in the Shari’ah and everyday
practice. Kissing the Ka’aba, the Qur’an and the hands of feet of the pious are from the
kisses of respect.
Relied upon books such as Durr al-Mukhtar mention this clearly [al-Durr al-Mukhtar,
2:245].
Even in the Hadith themselves, the actions of the companions of kissing the hands and
feet of RasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam are mentioned.
Just as I have explained extensively in my book al-Bariqat al-Shariqa ‘ala’l Mariqat al-
Mushariqa.
Related to the issue is the hadith of ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar radiyAllahu ta’ala ‘anhuma that
he wiped his face at the place where RasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam sat [al-
Tabqat al-Kubra ibn Sa’d, 1:254].
 It is related about the companions that they would
touch the circular parapet that is next to the blessed shrine with their right hand and then
make supplications. Imam Qadi ‘Iyad writes in Shifa’ that:
Nafi’ said that when ibn ‘Umar radiyAllahu ta’ala ‘anhuma would say salam; he would
say salam on RasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam and Abu Bakr radiyAllahu ta’ala
‘anhu more than 100 times, then he would go to the blessed pulpit and touch the place
with is hands where RasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam sat and rub them over his
face. Ibn Qaseet and ‘Utba narrate that when the companions ridwanAllahi ta’ala
‘alaihim would exit the Masjid al-Nabawi, they would touch the edges of the grave of the
prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam with their hands and then make du’a facing the Qibla.
The Shari’ah and common practice tell us that anything that deserves respect in the
Shari’ah warrants respect at all times. Respecting it is seen as respecting the thing due to
which it gained respect in the first place and the same goes for disrespecting it. Forexample, throwing the crown of the king to the ground is disrespectful at all times; notonly when he is wearing it. Every sane person knows this. It is in Shifa’ that:
It is from the respect due to RasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam that one gives
reverence to all things connected with him, all places he stayed in Makka and Madina,
the things he touched and all things that are known due to him [al-Shifa’ bi Ta’rif Huquq
al-Mustafa, 2:70].
And indeed respecting connected objects is in fact respect for the reason why these things
are themselves honoured and indeed the Ka’aba is from the signs of Allah, hence, respect
for the cloth of the Ka’aba is respect for the Ka’aba and respect for the Ka’aba is respect
for the signs of Allah, which is required in the Shari’ah:
And whoever respects the signs of Allah, this surely it is from the piety of hearts. [22:32]
There is no specificity as to which things one can kiss and come into contact with either.
Whichever thing has any connection with anything that the Shari’ah commands respect
for, it is necessary to respect and love it. Hence, to kiss and touch the walls of Madina has
been the practice of the people of love and has been noted in the works of the scholars,
even though these buildings were not even in existence in the time of the prophet
sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam let alone being touched by him sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam.
Someone has said:
I was in the land of Layla and I kissed its walls. In my heart resides the inhabitant of this
land but I love the other dwellers too [Shifa al-Siqam, p.73, Jawahir al-Bihar, 3:177,
Naseem al-Riyad, 3:434].
It is in Shifa’ that:
It is advisable to respect the places whose dust has touched the blessed body of the
prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam. So too is must we honour that atmosphere that
surrounds those streets and plains and to kiss the walls [al-Shifa’ bi Tarif Huquq al-
Mustafa, 2:45-46].
He then says:
The abode of the best of Messengers, the guide to the worlds and the performer of
miracles. I feel aching, love and yearning for him. When I see those walls and plains, I
will kiss them so much that my white beard will be filled with dust [al-Shifa’ bi Tarif
Huquq al-Mustafa, 2:46].
Even more evident than this is that relied upon scholars of all ranks, from the East and
West, Arabs and non-Arabs have drawn images of the blessed shrine and sandals [na’al]
of the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam and have kissed them and placed them upon
their eyes and heads and have ordered others to do so. ‘Allama Abu’l Yuman ibn ‘Asakir,
Shaykh Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Khalf Salami and others have written
books purely on this issue and Fath al-Muta’al fi Madh Khayr al-Na’al of Allama Ahmad
Maqtari is comprehensive in this regard. May Allah grant them a good recompense and
peace by virtue of the blessed sandals, Aameen.
(1) The Muhaddith, ‘Allama Faqih Abu’r Rabee’ Sulaiman bin Salim Kala’I rahimahullah says:
Oh the one who looks at the blessed sandals of the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam – Kiss this image without any pride [Jawahir al-Bihar, 3:163].
(2) Qadi Shams al-Din Saif Allah Rashidi writes:
The one who touches the image of the blessed sandals of Taha sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam will get unmeasured goodness on the day of judgement and indeed he will live in utmost pleasure. Hence, to get this wish on that day, kiss this honoured relic at once.
(3) Shaykh Fath Allah Bayluni Halani, contemporary of ‘Allama Maqri, writes: Oh blessed sandals of the leader of the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam. I have witnessed that your image contains those secrets that have extraordinary blessings. One should rub his face on this image with humility and fulfil the rights of this sacred image that are necessary upon him.
He also says:
Put your hands forward to kiss the image of those blessed sandals that have touched the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam. Accept the reverence due to them with your tongue and with a pure belief of the heart, place it upon your eyes and kiss it. Openly send salawat upon the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam and do this action time and again.
(4) Sayyid Muhammad Musa Husaini Maliki, contemporary of ‘Allama Fath Allah Bayluni, writes:
There is such blessing in the image of the blessed sandals of the best of creation sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam that if you place it on your face with a pure intention, you willbe granted your desire.
(5) Muhammad bin Farj Sabti writes:
Oh my face, kiss it as this is the image of the sanctified sandals. Seek remedy by kissing it so that your illness is removed.
(6) ‘Allama Ahmad bin Maqtari Talmasani, author of Fath al-Muta’al writes:
How dignified the image of the blessed sandals is which is more elevated than the wholeworld. Glad tidings to him who kisses it and expresses his intense love [Fath al-Muta’al].
(7) ‘Allama Abu’l Yuman ibn ‘Asakir writes:
Kiss the image of the blessed sandals because even if you get to kiss this, then what an honour this is.
(8) ‘Allama Abu’l Hakam Malik bin Abdu’r Rahman bin ‘Ali Maghribi, who has been
called Ahad al-Fudala al-Maghariba [one of the accomplished people of Maghrib] writes
in his Madhiya:
 I befriend the blessed sandals of my beloved sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam and day and night I kiss it [Sharh al-Zarqani, 5:57].
(9) Imam Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Imam Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullah bin Husain Ansari
Qurtubi writes:
I concentrated on the waves of light that emanated from the blessed sandals and as long
as we bow down them, we will be honoured. Hence, keep it above the head as it is in
reality a crown and apparently a sandal [al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya, 2:470].
The abovementioned translation has been praised in Sharh Mawahib and the scholar has
been remembered as a Faqih, Muhaddith, expert, eloquent, pious and unmatched.
(10) Imam ‘Allama Ahmad bin Muhammad Khateeb Qastalani, author of Irshad al-Sari
Sharh Sahih Bukhari, has included the above couplets in his book Mawahib al-Ladunniya
and has praised the Madhiya of ‘Allama Abu’l Hakam Maghribi by saying maa ahsanaha
[al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya, 2:468] and the poem of ‘Allama ibn Asakir as lillahi darrah
[al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya, 2:467].
(11) ‘Allama Zarqani commentates on this by writing:
If possible, kiss the dust that has been touched by the sandals, otherwise, kiss an image of
the sandals [Sharh al-Zarqani ‘ala’l Mawahib, 5:48].
(12) ‘Allama Taj al-Din Fakihani writes in the chapter of the image of the sandals in Fajr
Muneer that:
One benefit of making the image is that whoever cannot see the actual shrine can look at
the image and kiss it with a yearning because this image is the same as the actual. The
image of the sandals is full of benefit which makes it the same as the actual – this has
been tried and tested. Hence, the scholars have ordained the same respect for the image as
they do for the actual [al-Fajr al-Muneer].
(13) Sayyidi ‘Allama Muhammad bin Sulaiman Jazuli, author of Dala’il al-Khayrat, has
also followed ‘Allama Fakihani and has included the image of the blessed shrine in his
Dala’il al-Khayrat and writes in its commentary Kabeer that:
I have followed Shaykh Taj al-Din Fakihani by including it. He included a chapter in al-
Fajr al-Muneer about sacred shrines and mentioned this in its benefits [Sharh Dala’il al-
Khayrat Juzuli].
(14) Similarly, ‘Allama Muhammad bin Ahmad bin ‘Ali Fasi writes in Mutala al-
Musarrat Sharh Dala’il al-Khayrat that:
He said that the author rahimahullahi ta’ala included the chapter regarding the blessed
shrine and sacred graves after the chapter of names following in the footsteps of Shaykh Taj al-Din Fakihani because in his book al-Fajr al-Muneer he included a chapter on the sacred shrines. In this chapter, he mentions one benefit that whoever cannot see the actual shrine should see the image of the sandals and kiss it and show deep love for it. The scholars have written that the respect for the image is the same as for the actual and he has written that scholars have experienced the blessings of this [Mutali’at al-Musarrat, p.144].
Look at the sayings of the scholars regarding the image of the sandals. These are images, not the actual. Then what about the actual cloth from the Ka’aba which has come into contact with the Ka’aba. There is no doubt in the actions that people perform with it to seek blessings and to show respect.
It is included in the general rulings and there is nothing preventing specific actions. This is enough to make it permissible. Praise is to Allah who is the most high.
As for the rush of people around it, then this is nothing new either. This has been the practice of the people of love with regards to sacred relics in times past. It is in Sahih Bukhari and other books of hadith that when ‘Urwa bin Mas’ud Thaqafi radiyAllahu ta’ala ‘anhu went to Hudaibiya to see the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam, he saw the companions:
When the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam was performing ablution, they would run for the ablution water of RasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam and it is near they would kill one another for it and when they see the blessed saliva of RasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam, they take it in their hands and rub it on their faces and bodies [Sahih al- Bukhari, 1:379, ash-Shifa’ bi Ta’rif Huquq al-Mustafa, 2:31].
The state of the companions that they are near to killing one another is proven from the life of the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam himself. Their state is far greater than people creating a massive rush. Similarly, rushes to kiss the black stone are age old. Hence, the actual practice is totally permissible and when the intention is to gain blessings and show respect for the sings of Allah, then it is definitely recommended and a requisite of the Shari’ah.
However, if there is a danger of causing any Islamic ruling to be disregarded, then making it a habit of causing a rush after every one of the five prayers and trying to kiss it without any restrictions after the Jum’a prayer must be avoided. Also, to stay permanently at a place causes people to lose respect for that place. Hence, staying in the sacred sanctuaries for long periods was prohibited. Amir al-Mu’mineen Faruq al- A’adham radiyAllahu ta’ala ‘anhu would make a tour around all the groups of people who came to Hajj and announce, “Oh people of Yemen, go back to Yemen. Oh people of Syria, go back to Syria. Oh people of Iraq, return to Iraq. By doing this, you will have more honour for the house of your Lord.”
The best method would be to place the cloth in a cabinet with respect and for a few days in each month, allow the people to see it. This is what Sultan Ashraf ‘Adil did in Madrasah Ashrafiya in Damascus where he built a house specifically for lessons of Hadith which he called Badar al-Hadith and he equipped it wholesomely and built a Masjid inside in the direction of the Qibla. To the eastern side the Mihrab of this Masjid, he built another building to house the blessed sandal of the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam. He decorated the doors with items that looked like gold and placed the blessed sandals with utmost reverence in a cabinet made from ebony and beautified it with numerous veils. This door would be opened every Monday and Friday and people would gain blessings by viewing the sandals [just as ‘Allama Maqari has written in Fath al-Muta’al and in various works of other scholars].
This madrasah and Dar al-Hadith were always frequented by leading scholars. Imam Abu Zakariya Nawawi, commentator of Muslim, was a teacher there and following him, Khatam al-Mujtahidin, Abu’l Hasan Taqi al-Din ‘Ali bin ‘Abdul Kafi Subki, author of Shifa’ al-Siqam, sat in his place. Similarly, leading scholars taught there and none of them objected to the Sultan’s praiseworthy action. Moreover, it is hoped that these leading scholars themselves participated in seeing the sandals and gather blessings. The Muhaddith, ‘Allama Hafidh Burhan al-Din Halabi rahimahullah ta’ala writes in Nur al-Nibras that Shaykhuna al-Imam al-Muhaddith Amin Maliki rahmatullah ‘alaih said:
One fine aspect of Madrasah Dar al-Hadith is that I can achieve my goal and intention there. I hear the Hadith of the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam and I get to kiss the sacred relics of the prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam.
 Hence, make this the method of seeing the cloth of the Ka’aba. Whoever gets to kiss it without any trouble can do so and whoever cannot, should be content at just seeing it. Kissing the black stone is Sunnah Mu’akkada – but when it is troublesome to oneself or others in doing so, it is avoided and kissing the cloth is of lesser importance than this.
This is the peaceful way and the middle path which is strong. Allah has the most
Knowledge; his knowledge is complete and supreme.
Categories: Aqida, Articles, Fiqh

Tarawih Prayer

Proof # 1
 أخبرنا أبو طاهر الفقية، قال: أخبرنا أبو عثمان البصري، قال: حدثنا أبو أحمد: محمد بن عبد الوهاب، قال: أخبرنا خالد بن مخلد، قال: حدثنا محمد بن جعفر، قال: حدثني يزيد بن خصيفة، عن السائب بن يزيد، قال: كنا نقوم في زمان عمر بن الخطاب بعشرين ركعة والوتر.


Sa’eeb ibn Yazid: who said: ‘In the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) the people used to observe “20 rak’ahs” (Tarawih) and the witr.’ [Marifat-us-Sunan wa'l athar - Imam Bayhaqi, Volume 004, Page No. 42, Hadith Number 5409]

Imam al-Bayhaqi (rah) has also reported another version of the above narration through a different channel of transmission.
وقد أخبرنا أبو عبد الله الحسين بن محمد بن الحسين بن فنجويه الدينوري بالدامغان ثنا أحمد بن محمد بن إسحاق السني أنبأ عبد الله بن محمد بن عبد العزيز البغوي ثنا علي بن الجعد أنبأ بن أبي ذئب عن يزيد بن خصيفة عن السائب بن يزيد قال كانوا يقومون على عهد عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه في شهر رمضان بعشرين ركعة قال وكانوا يقرؤون بالمئين وكانوا يتوكؤن على عصيهم في عهد عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه من شده القيام
Sa’eeb bin Yazeed (ra) who said: “In the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him), they would perform “20 rak’ahs” (Tarawih) in the month of Ramadan. He said (also): And they would recite the Mi’in, and they would lean on their sticks in the time of Uthman ibn Affan (Allah be pleased with him), from the discomfort of standing.” [Bayhaqi Sunan al-Kubra Volume 002, Page No. 698-9, Hadith Number 4617]  Imam al-Nawawi said: ‘Its Isnad is Sahih’. (بإسناد صحيح) [Al-Khulasa al-Ahkam, Hadith Number 1961]  

Imam Badr ud din Ayni (rah) states: 

رواه البيهقي بإسناد صحيح عن السائب بن يزيد الصحابي، قال: كانوا يقومون على عهد عمر ، رضي الله تعالى عنه، بعشرين ركعة، وعلى عهد عثمان وعلي، رضي الله تعالى عنهما، مثله

Translation: Imam al-Bayhaqi has narrated with “SAHIH CHAIN” from the companion Sai’b bin Yazid (RA) who said: During the tunure of Umar (RA) people used to stand for 20 Rakahs (of Tarawih), same was done in the time Uthman (ra) and Ali (ra) [Umdat ul Qari, Sharh Sahih ul Bukhari, Volume No. 5, Page No. 264, Published by Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon]
 Al-Mubarakfuri the famous Salafi scholar also declared the Sanad of this hadith as “Sahih” and he cited Imam al-Nawawi (rah)’s authentication [Tuhfa Tul Ahwadhi, Volume No. 3, Page No. 453, Published by Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon]

Imam Nimawi al Hanafi (rah) said

رجال هذا الاسناد كلهم ثقات

Translation: All the men in this Isnaad are “THIQA” [Athaar al-Sunnan (2/54)]

Proof # 2


و حدثني ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏مالك ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏يزيد بن رومان ‏ ‏أنه قال ‏
‏كان الناس ‏ ‏يقومون في زمان ‏ ‏عمر بن الخطاب ‏ ‏في رمضان بثلاث وعشرين ركعة ‏
Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Ruman said, “The people used to watch the night in prayer during Ramadan for twenty-three rakahs in the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab.” [Muwatta Imam Malik, Book : As Salah Chapter : Ma Ja-a Fi Qayam e Ramzan Volume : 1 Page : 159 Hadith number : 380]  


Note: 3 Rakahs were of Witr

Imam Tirmidhi (rah)’s opinion:

  وأَكْثَرُ أهْلِ العِلمِ على ما رُوِيَ عن عليٍّ وعُمر وغَيْرِهِمَا مِنْ أَصحابِ النبيِّ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً. وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الثَّوْرِيِّ وابنِ المُبَارَكِ والشَّافِعيِّ رحمه الله. وقَالَ الشَّافِعيُّ: وهَكَذَا أدْرَكْتُ بِبَلَدِنَا بِمَكَّةَ، يُصَلُّونَ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً
 
The Majority amongst People of Knowledge, (agree) upon praying 20 Rakahs (of Tarawih) as is narrated from Umar (RA), Ali (RA) and other Sahaba of Prophet (Salallaho alaihi wasalam) Sufyan Thawri (rah), Abdullah Ibn Mubarak (rah) and Imam Shafi’i (rah) said the same, Imam Shafi’i (rah) said that he saw people of Makkah praying 20 Rakahs (Tarawih) [Sunnan Jami’i al Tirimdhi, Book of Fasting, Chapter on Qiyaam in Ramadan Volume 3 Page No. 169 Hadith No. 806] 

Proof # 3
حَدَّثَنَا حُمَيْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ ، عَنْ حَسَنٍ ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ بْنِ رُفَيْعٍ ، قَالَ كَانَ أُبَيّ بْنُ كَعْبٍ يُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ فِي رَمَضَانَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً وَيُوتِرُ بِثَلاَثٍ.

From Abdul Aziz bin Rafi who said: Ubay Ibn Ka’b (Allah be pleased with him) used to lead people during Ramadan in Madina Munawara for “20 Rakah” (Tarawih) and 3 Rakah Witr. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah Volume 005. Page No. 224, Hadith Number 7766]   

Proof # 4

 أخبرنا أبو الحسن بن الفضل القطان ببغداد أنبأ محمد بن أحمد بن عيسى بن عبدك الرازي ثنا أبو عامر عمرو بن تميم ثنا أحمد بن عبد الله بن يونس ثنا حماد بن شعيب عن عطاء بن السائب عن أبي عبد الرحمن السلمي عن على رضي الله عنه قال دعا القراء في رمضان فأمر منهم رجلا يصلي بالناس عشرين ركعة قال وكان علي رضي الله عنه يوتر بهم وروى ذلك من وجه آخر عن علي

Abdur Rahman Sulami narrates that Ali (Allah be pleased with him) called the reciters of the Quran in Ramadan and commanded one of them to perform “twenty rakat” (Tarawih) while Ali (Allah be pleased with him) himself used to lead the witr prayer. [Bayhaqi Sunan al-Kubra Volume 002, Page No. 699, Hadith Number 4620]   

Proof # 5

 عَنِ الْحَسَنِ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ جَمَعَ النَّاسَ عَلَى أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ فِي قِيَامِ رَمَضَانَ، فَكَانَ يُصَلِّي بِهِمْ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً
Imam Hassan al-Basri (May Allah have mercy upon him) said: Umar Ibnul Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) gathered people behind Ubayy Ibn Kab (Allah be pleased with him) in the Qiyaam of Ramadan and he led them for “20 Rakat” [Siyar al A'lam wa al Nubalah Volume 001, Page No. 400-1, Biography of 'Ubayy Ibn Kab']

Imam al-Nawawi said: ‘Its Isnad is Sahih’. (بإسناد صحيح) [Al-Khulasa al-Ahkam, Hadith Number 1961]

Proof # 6
 حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ ، عَنْ حَسَنِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ قَيْسٍ ، عَنِ أَبِي الْحَسْنَاءِ أَنَّ عَلِيًّا أَمَرَ رَجُلاً يُصَلِّي بِهِمْ فِي رَمَضَانَ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً

Abu al Hasna says that Ali (Allah be pleased with him) order a person to lead “20 rakat (Tarawih)”  during Ramadan. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah Volume 005, Page No. 223, Hadith Number 7763]  

Proof # 7

حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ ، عَنْ نَافِعِ بْنِ عُمَرَ ، قَالَ كَانَ ابْنُ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ يُصَلِّي بِنَا فِي رَمَضَانَ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً، وَيَقْرَأُ بِحَمْدِ الْمَلاَئِكَةِ فِي رَكْعَةٍ

Narrated by Waki’i from Nafe bin Umar (Allah be pleased with him) who said: Ibn Abi Mulaika (RA) used to lead us in Ramadan for “20 Rakahs”. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah Volume 005, Page No. 223, Hadith Number 7765]  

Proofs # 8, 9 & 10 Plus detailed refutation on their misuse of ahadith

 عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يصلي في شهر رمضان في غير جماعة عشرين ركعة والوتر

Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) used to pray “twenty raka’at” by himself followed by Witr (every night) in the month of Ramadan. [Sunan Al-Baihaqi, Hadith Number 12102]عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يصلي في رمضان عشرين ركعة والوتر

Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) used to pray “twenty raka’at” followed by Witr in the month of Ramadan. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah, Volume 002, Hadith Number 7692]  حديث أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى بالناس عشرين ركعة ليلتين فلما كان في الليلة الثالثة اجتمع الناس فلم يخرج إليهم ثم قال من الغد خشيت أن تفرض عليكم
 On the authority of Aisha (R.A)] the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) performed “twenty raka’at on 2 nights with people but he did not come out on the 3rd night and said that I am afraid that it might become obligatory upon you (Sahaba) [Ibn Hajr, al-Talkhees al-Habeer, Volume 002, Hadith Number 540]
 Note: After this hadith Imam Ibn Hajr al Asqalani (rah) said:
  متفق على صحته من حديث عائشة دون عدد الركعات
  Translation: “All the traditionalists (Muhaddithin) are unanimous about the soundness of this report from Ayesha (ra), but without the number of Rakahs.
 The Ahlul Bidah exclaim with joy saying: Look Imam Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (rah) accepted the hadith to be Sahih but only without the number of Rakahs, therefore the number of Rakahs in Tarawih are not established.
 Answer: First of all this saying of Imam Ibn Hajr (rah) goes against them not us because we have overwhelming other proofs which establish 20 Rakahs however they have only 2 proofs from which they hypocrtically claim that Tarawih consists of 8 Rakahs
 Their primary proof is the hadith in Sahih Bukhari which states:
 Volume 2, Book 21, Number 248:  (Sahih Bukhari – Book of Tahajjud)
 Narrated Abu Salma bin ‘Abdur Rahman: I asked ‘Aisha, “How is the prayer of Allah’s Apostle during the month of Ramadan.” She said, “Allah’s Apostle never exceeded eleven Rakat in Ramadan or in other months; he used to offer four Rakat– do not ask me about their beauty and length, then four Rakat, do not ask me about their beauty and length, and then three Rakat.” Aisha further said, “I said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Do you sleep before offering the Witr prayer?’ He replied, ‘O ‘Aisha! My eyes sleep but my heart remains awake’!”
 Even a layman can see that Aisha (ra) is talking about Tahajjud because she said “OR IN OTHER MONTHS” whereas Salaat ut-Tarawih is only the prayer of Ramadan. Although we can go in length about this issue and decisively prove that the above hadith specifically refers to Tahhajud and not Tarawih, but we would like to concentrate on another point. This hadith also comes under the verdict of Imam Ibn Hajr al Asqalani (rah) i.e.  “All the traditionalists (Muhaddithin) are unanimous about the soundness of this report from Ayesha (ra), but without the number of Rakahs.
 Let us see the proofs from Sahihayn (i.e. Bukhari and Muslim)
 Volume 2, Book 21, Number 261: (Sahih Bukhari)
  Narrated ‘Aisha: Allah’s Apostle used to offer thirteen Rakat in the night prayer and on hearing the Adhan for the morning prayer, he used to offer two light Rakat.
 This hadith proves Tahajjud to be atleast 10-12 Rakahs (without witr) whereas these people consider 8 Rakahs to be Sunnah of Prophet (Peace be upon him).. This is why Imam Ibn Hajr (rah) has also declared the hadith of 20 Rakahs from Sayyida Aisha as “SAHIH” but without the number of Rakahs.
  Volume 2, Book 21, Number 240: (Sahih Bukhari)
  Narrated Masruq: I asked Aisha about the night prayer of Allah’s Apostle and she said, “It was seven, nine or eleven Rakat besides the two Rakat of the Fajr prayer (i.e. Sunna). “
 This also proves “IDHTIRAB” in the hadith of Aisha (ra) and Tarawih could never be considered as 8 Rakahs because there is consensus on it being 20.  

 Book 004, Number 1611: (Sahih Muslim) 

 It is reported on the authority of ‘A’isha that the prayer of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in the night consisted of ten rak’ahs. He observed a Witr and two rak’ahs (of Sunan) of the dawn prayer, and thus the total comes to thirteen rak’ahs.

  Book 004, Number 1686: (Sahih Muslim) 

 Abu Jamra reported: I heard Ibn ‘Abbas saying that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed thirteen rak’ahs at night.

  Book 004, Number 1687: (Sahih Muslim)
 Zaid b Khalid al-Juhani said: I would definitely watch at night the prayer observed by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He prayed two short rak’ahs, then two long, long, long rak’ahs, then he prayed two rak’ahs which were shorter than the two preceding rak’ahs, then he prayed two rak’ahs which were shorter than the two preceding, then he prayed two rak’ahs which were shorter than the two preceding, then observed a single one (Witr), making a total of thirteen rak’ahs
 Now coming to the Proofs 8 & 9 which we have shown above i.e. the hadith from Ibn Abbas (ra) establishing 20 Rakahs directly from the Prophet (Peace be upon him), however both the ahadith have a narrator called Abu Shaybah (i.e. grandfather of mighty Muhadith Ibn Abi Shaybah) who has difference of opinion over his reliability, most of the muhaditheen have considered him “WEAK” … Now these people again jump with joy saying that Abu Shaybah is weak therefore 20 Rakahs is not established from Prophet (Peace be upon him), in reply they show this following hadith
 Jabir Bin ‘Abdillah (ra) reported:“Allah’s Messenger (saw) led us (one night) during Ramadhan, praying Eight Rakaah and Witr. On the following night, we gathered in the Masjid hoping that he will come out again (to lead the prayer). We stayed there until the morning. Then we entered (to the centre of the Masjid) and said, `O Messenger of Allah” Last night we gathered in the Masjid hoping that you would lead us in prayer.’ To which he replied `Indeed I feared that it would become an obligation on you’” [Ibn Khuzaimah (2/138 Hadith #1070),  Mu’ajam as-Sagheer (1/190) of Tabaraanee and others]
 Now these are the same people who declare every second hadith as Daeef which does not go in conformity to their agendas, now let us see Jirah on narrators of hadith from Jabir (ra)

The Hadith “ONLY” comes through the route of “Isa Ibn Jariyah” , Here is what mighty Muhaditheen and masters of Jirah wa Tadil said on this narrator

قال ابن أبـي خيثمة عن ابن معين: ليس بذاك ، لا أعلم أحداً روى عنه غير يعقوب

Yahya Bin Mu’een said: He is “NOTHING” and he does not know whether anyone other than Yaqub (Shia) has narrated from him[Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib (4/518)]

In Tahdhib ul Kamaal of Imam al-Mizzi (rah), the declaration of Imam Abu Dawud (rah) is also there who called him Munkar ul Hadith.وقال أبو عُبـيد الآجُري ، عن أبـي داود: منكر الحديثTranslation: Abu Ubaid al-Ajri narrates from Abu Dawud that (Isa bin Jariyah) is “MUNKAR UL HADITH” [Tahdhib ul Kamaal, Volume No. 14, Page No. 533]
Imam Nasai’i said in his “DU’AFA WAL MATROOKEEN”

عيسى ابن جارية: يروي عنه يعقوب القُمِّي، منكر
Translation: Isa bin Jariyah narrated from Yaqub al-Qummi (shia narrator) and he (Isa ibn Jariyah) is “MUNKAR” [Nasai’i in Duafa wal Matrooken (2/215)]Hence 2 great Imams from Six most authentic books i.e. Imam Abu Dawud (rah) and Imam Nasai’i (rah) declared him “MUNKAR UL HADITH”

Here is what other great scholars said of him

قلت: وذكره الساجي، والعقيلي في الضعفاء. وقال ابن عدي: أحاديثه غير محفوظة
Translation: Imam al Saaji (rah) and Imam al-Uqayli (rah) mentioned him in their “DUAFA (i.e. weak narrators)”
Imam Ibn Adi (rah) said: His ahadith are “NOT MAHFOOZ” [Tahdhib ut Tahdhib (4/518)]
Imam Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (rah) himself said: فيه لين (i.e. he is Lain i.e. inclined towards weakness) [Taqrib ut Tahdhib (1/768)]
Even highest authorities of Salafis such as Albani, Hussain Saleem Asad have declared the hadith itself as “Daeef”
Hussain Saleem Asad in his Tahqiq to Musnad Abu Ya’la said:

إسناده ضعيف
Translation: It’s chain is “WEAK” [Musnad Abu Ya’la, with Tahqeeq of Hussain Saleem Asad (3/336), Published by Dar ul Ma’moon, Dimishq]

Hence The highest authorities in Jirah wa Tadil like Yahya bin Mu’een (rah) plus Imam Nasa’i and Abu Dawud (rah) declared Isa bin Jariyah as Munkar ul Hadith (Rejected in hadith) let alone Daeef, hence the narration which Salafis show becomes “Mawdo!”
A famous subcontinental Salafi scholar Moulana Abdur Rahman Mubarakpuri (1353 A.H.) has written that the ahadîth of a narrator who is known as munkarul hadîth, are worthy of being rejected.(Ibkarul Matn pg.191)

Hence the hadith of Ibn Abbas (ra) and Jabir (ra) are both atleast weak (latter one being forged) so according to Usool of hadith which Imam Abu Dawud clarified the hadith of Ibn Abbas (ra) becomes Maqbool (accepted). Imam Abu Dawud (rah) said after narrating a hadith:

  اذا تنازع الخبران عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ينظر بما اخذ به اصحابه

Translation: If there seems to be “contradiction” between 2 reports of Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) then we take the practise which is “CONFIRMED BY SAHABA” [Sunnan Abu Dawud under Hadith No. 1577] 

Hence the hadith of Ibn Abbas (ra) is confirmed as it corresponds to the ahadith from Umar (ra), Ali (ra), Ubay Ibn Ka’b (ra) and many others.   The Wahabis have another hadith from Muwatta Imam Malik which they use to defend their stance, this hadith contradicts overwhelming ahadith regarding Practise of Ubay Ibn Ka’b that he prayed 20 Rakahs. 

It is states in Muwatta: 
Book 6, Number 6.2.4: (Muwatta Imam Malik) 
Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn Yusuf that as-Sa’ib ibn Yazid said, “Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered Ubayy ibn Kab and Tamim ad-Dari to watch the night in prayer with the people for eleven rakas.The reciterof the Qur’an would recite the Mi’in (a group of medium-sized suras) until we would be leaning on our staffs from having stood so long in prayer. And we would not leave until the approach of dawn.” 
.
This is the second biggest proof which Salafis use. Unfortunately the Salafis can only deceive innocent public who are not well-aware of sciences of Jarh wa Tadil, Asma Wa Rijaal etc… but the Ahlus Sunnah will teach Salafis some good lessons in these fields.  

In Muwatta this is the Isnaad
‏ ‏محمد بن يوسف ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏السائب بن يزيد ‏ ‏أنه قال ‏ ‏أمر ‏ ‏عمر بن الخطاب
Note at: “Muhammad bin Yusuf An Saib Ibn Yazid”
In Musannaf Abdur Razzaq the same hadith is present with same chain but it states:
محمد بن يوسف عن السائب بن يزيد أن عمر جمع الناس في رمضان على أبي بن كعب وعلى تميم الداري على إحدى وعشرين ركعة

Translation: Narrated by Muhammad bin Yusuf from Saib bin Yazid that Umar (RA) gathered people in Ramadan behind Ubay Ibn Kaab (ra) and Tamim Dari (ra) and he made them lead people in “TWENTY-ONE” Rakahs [Musannaf Abdur Razzaq, Volume No. 4, Page No. 260, Hadith No. 7730]

Hence even the Hadith in Muwatta does not prove 8, rather 20 is decisively proven as proven from above hadith, now the Salafis have no hadith from Khulafa ar Rashideen in regards to 8 Rakah Tarawih, therefore the hadith in Muwatta is proven to be “MUDHTARIB” and cannot be used as proof. Please see the overwhelming proofs above, you will find many ahadith which prove that Ubai Ibn Ka’b prayed 20 Rakahs, even Ibn Taymiyyah al-Mujasmi the sheikh ul Islam of Salafis said:  
ثبت أن أبي بن كعب كان يقوم بالناس عشرين ركعة في قيام رمضان، ويوتر بثلاث‏.‏ فرأي كثير من العلماء أن ذلك هو السنة؛ لأنه أقامه بين المهاجرين والأنصار، ولم ينكره منكر

Translation: “It has been proven that Ubayy ibn Ka’b (Allah be pleased with him) used to lead the Companions, during Ramadan, for 20 rak’ahs and 3 rak’ahs of witr. Hence it is the principle (maslak) of most of the Ulama that this is the Sunnah, because Ubayy ibn Ka’b led 20 rak’ahs of prayer in the presence of the Muhajirin (the emigrants) and the Ansars (the helpers) and not a single Companion repudiated it!” [Ibn Taymiyyah: Majmua al Fatawa (1/191)]

Proof # 11
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ ، عَنْ حَجَّاجٍ ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ ، عَنِ الْحَارِثِ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَؤُمُّ النَّاسَ فِي رَمَضَانَ بِاللَّيْلِ بِعِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً وَيُوتِرُ بِثَلاَثٍ وَيَقْنُتُ قَبْلَ الرُّكُوعِ

Al-Harith narrates that he used to offer “20 rakats” (tarawih) in Ramadan and also used to lead 3 witr and used to offer Qunut before Ruku. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah Volume 005, Page No. 224, Hadith Number 7767]  

Proof # 12 and also definition of Tarawih itself:
حَدَّثَنَا غُنْدَرٌ ، عَنْ شُعْبَةَ ، عَنْ خَلَفٍ ، عَنْ رَبِيعٍ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ خَيْرًا ، عَنْ أَبِي الْبَخْتَرِيِّ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يُصَلِّي خَمْسَ تَرْوِيحَاتٍ فِي رَمَضَانَ وَيُوتِرُ بِثَلاَثٍ

It is narrated from Hadrat Abi al-Bakhtari (ra) that he used to lead people in “5 Tarvihaat” (i.e 20 Rakat Tarawih) in Ramadan and with 3 (rakah) witr. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah Volume 005, Page No. 224, Hadith Number 7768] Note: The Prayer of Tarawih consists of 4 Tarvihs (resting period after every 4 rakahs) and 5 Tarvihaat which makes it 5*4=20 

Proof # 13
 حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ نُمَيْرٍ ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ ، عَنْ عَطَاءٍ ، قَالَ أَدْرَكْت النَّاسَ وَهُمْ يُصَلُّونَ ثَلاَثًا وَعِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً بِالْوِتْرِ

Ata Ibn Abi Rubah (RA) said: I have always seen people performing “Twenty Three Rakats” including witr. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah Volume 005, Page No. 224, Hadith Number 7770]  

Proof # 14
حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ ، عَنْ شُتَيْرِ بْنِ شَكَلٍ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يُصَلِّي فِي رَمَضَانَ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً وَالْوِتْرَ

It is proved from Shaytar Ibn Shakl that he used to lead “20 rakaat” Tarawih in Ramadan and also in witr. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah Volume 005, Page No. 222, Hadith Number 7762] 

Proof # 15
الفضل بن دكين عن سعيد بن عبيد ان علي بن ربيعة كان يصلي بهم في رمضان خمس ترويحات ويوتر ثلاث.

Sa’eed bin Ubaid narrates that Ali bin Rabiyah (RA) used to lead them in 5 Tarwihat (i.e 20 rakat tarawih) and 3 witr..[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah Volume 005, Page No. 224, Hadith Number 7772]  

Proof # 16

Ibn Quduma (rah) while proving “Ijma” on 20 Rakah Tarawih, writes:

وَالْمُخْتَارُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ، رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ ، فِيهَا عِشْرُونَ رَكْعَةً . وَبِهَذَا قَالَ الثَّوْرِيُّ ، وَأَبُو حَنِيفَةَ ، وَالشَّافِعِيُّ . وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ : سِتَّةٌ وَثَلَاثُونَ . وَزَعَمَ أَنَّهُ الْأَمْرُ الْقَدِيمُ ، وَتَعَلَّقَ بِفِعْلِ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ ، فَإِنَّ صَالِحًا مَوْلَى التَّوْأَمَةِ قَالَ : أَدْرَكْتُ النَّاسَ يَقُومُونَ بِإِحْدَى وَأَرْبَعِينَ رَكْعَةً ، يُوتِرُونَ مِنْهَا بِخَمْسٍ . وَلَنَا ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ ،رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ لَمَّا جَمَعَ النَّاسَ عَلَى أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ ، وَكَانَ يُصَلِّي لَهُمْ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً ، وَقَدْ رَوَى الْحَسَنُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ جَمَعَ النَّاسَ عَلَى أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ ، فَكَانَ يُصَلِّي لَهُمْ عِشْرِينَ لَيْلَةً ، وَلَا يَقْنُتُ بِهِمْ إلَّا فِي النِّصْفِ الثَّانِي فَإِذَا كَانَتْ الْعَشْرُ الْأَوَاخِرُ تَخَلَّفَ أُبَيٌّ ، فَصَلَّى فِي بَيْتِهِ ، فَكَانُوا يَقُولُونَ : أَبَقَ أُبَيٌّ رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُد ، وَرَوَاهُ السَّائِبُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ ، وَرُوِيَ عَنْهُ مِنْ طُرُقٍ . وَرَوَى مَالِكٌ ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ رُومَانَ ، قَالَ : كَانَ النَّاسُ يَقُومُونَ فِي زَمَنِ عُمَرَ فِي رَمَضَانَ بِثَلَاثٍ وَعِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً . وَعَنْ عَلِيٍّ ، أَنَّهُ أَمَرَ رَجُلًا يُصَلِّي بِهِمْ فِي رَمَضَانَ عِشْرِينَ رَكْعَةً . وَهَذَا كَالْإِجْمَاعِ.
فاما ما رواه صالح ، فان صالحا ضعيف ، ثم لا ندرى من الناس الزين أخبر عنهم ؟ فلعله قد أدرك جماعة من الناس يفعلون زلك ، وليس زلك بحجة ، ثم لو ثبت أن أهل المدينة كلهم فعلوه لكان ما فعله عمر ، وأجمع عليه الصحابة فى عصره ، أولى بالاتباع ، قال بعض أهل العلم : إنما فعل هزا أهل المدينة لانهم أرادوا مساواة أهل مكة ، فان أهل مكة يطوفون سبعا بين كل ترويحتين ، فجعل أهل المدينة مكان كل سبع أربع ركعات ، وما كان عليه أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أولى واحق أن يتبع .
Translation: The established proof in sight of Abi Abullah (i.e. Imam Ahmed) is “20 RAKAHS” and same is the saying of “Thawri, Abu Hanifa and Shafi’I” In sight of Imam Malik it consists of 36 Rakahs and Malik has followed the people of Madina because Salah said that he saw people doing Qiyaam of 41 Rakahs out of which 5 were witr. “OUR PROOF IS THAT UMAR (RA) GATHERED PEOPLE BEHIND IBN KA’B AND MADE HIM LEAD 20 RAKAHS OF TARAWIH. It is also narrated via route of Hassan that Umar (ra) gathered people behind Ubayy ibn Ka’b for 20 nights. and he used to offer Qunnot in the nisf of Ramadan and used to offer tarawih in his home in the last 10 days, this has been narrated by Abu Dawud and Saib bin Yazid. Imam Malik has also narrated from Yazid bin Rumaan that during the tenure of Umar (ra) people used to offer 23 rakahs including witr. (Ibn Qudama continues): It is also narrated from Ali (ra) that he ordered “ONE PERSON TO LEAD OTHERS IN 20 RAKAHS, ****THEREFORE THERE IS IJMA ON 20 RAKAH TARAWIH**** That which saleh has said that (i.e. 41 rakahs) then the answer to this is that “SALEH IS WEAK AND WE DO NOT KNOW WHO HAS GIVEN THE REPORT OF 41 RAKAHS” It might be possible that Saleh saw some people praying 41 rakahs “BUT THIS IS NOT HUJJAT” even if we assume that people of Madina prayed 41 rakahs still the order of Umar (ra) which was followed by all Sahaba during his time is “MORE WORTHY OF FOLLOWING” Some scholars have said that people of Madina prayed 36 rakahs so that they can correspond to the people of Makkah because people of Makkha used to do 7 tawaaf after every 4 rakahs therefore the people of madina in that time started prayed 4 rakaat (i.e. nawafil). Now when we know that Sahaba of Prophet prayed 20 rakahs then “WE SHOULD FOLLOW IT” [Ibn Qudamah al-Mughni Volume 002, Page No. 604]  

 

Proof # 17

Al-Ghuniya tut Talibeen states: (Tarawih consists) of 20 Rakahs, in every second Rakah one should sit and say the Salaam, thus they become 5 Tarwihaat out of which every 4 are called Tarvih (i.e. 5 times 4 = 20) [Al Ghuniya Tut Talibeen Volume 2, Page No. 25]  

Proof # 18

Imam Bukhari reported in his book al-Kuna:

عن ابي الخصيب قال كان سويد بن غفلة يؤمنا في رمضان عشرين ركعة
 Abu al-Khusaib (ra) narrated that Suwaid bin Ghafalah (ra) always led us in offering “twenty raka’at Salat (al-Taraweeh)” in the month of Ramadan. [al-Kuna Volume 002, Hadith Number 234]

                                                             The Consensus of all 4 schools

1. Hanafi Madhab


Imam Badr ud din Ayni (rah) said:
رواه البيهقي بإسناد صحيح عن السائب بن يزيد الصحابي قال كانوا يقومون على عهد عمر رضي الله تعالى عنه بعشرين ركعة وعلى عهد عثمان وعلي رضي الله تعالى عنهما مثله وفي المغني عن علي أنه أمر رجلا أن يصلي بهم في رمضان بعشرين ركعة قال وهذا كالإجماع
Translation: Imam Baihaqi (Rahimuhullah) narrated with “SAHIH” isnaad from Saib Ibn Yazid the Sahabi who said: I saw (people) standing for 20 Rakahs in the era of Umar (RA), also in Era of Uthman (RA) and Ali (RA), In Al-Mughni (the leading Hanbli manual of fiqh) It is narrated from Ali (RA) that he ordered one man to lead people in Ramadan for 20 Rakahs, “ON THIS IS TOTAL IJMA (وهذا كالإجماع)” [Umdat ul Qari Volume No.7, Page No. 177]
Imam Ibn Hammam (rah) said: It has been established with genuine proof that Sahaba and Tabiyeen used to pray 20 Rakahs of Tarawih during the era of Umar (ra), this authentic report is narrated from Yazid ibn Ruman that during the time of Umar (ra) they used to pray 20 Rakahs, Imam Nawawi has “AUTHENTED” this report too [Al-Fath al Qadeer, Volume No.1, Page No. 470]
Allama Mullah Ali Qari (rah) said:
أجمع الصحابة على أن التراويح عشرون ركعة
Translation: There is Consensus/Ijma of Sahaba that Tarawih consists of 20 Rakahs [Mirqaat Sharah al Mishqaat, Volume No.2, Page No. 202, Published by Maktaba al Mishkaat]

2. Hanbali Madhab

Imam Ibn Qudama writes:
كان الناس يقومون في زمن عمر في رمضان بثلاث وعشرين ركعة وعن علي‏,‏ أنه أمر رجلا يصلي بهم في رمضان عشرين ركعة وهذا كالإجماعTranslation: The People stood for 23 Rakahs in Ramadan during the era of Umar (RA) , and It is narrated from Ali (ra) that he made a person to lead 20 Rakahs and on this”CONSENSUS/IJMA” (وهذا كالإجماع) [Ibn Quduma al Hanbli in Al-Mughni, Volume No.1, Page No. 802, Under the chapter of Rakaat in Tarawih]

Sheikh Abdul Qadir al Jilani al-Hanbli (rah) writes:
(Tarawih consists of) 20 Rakahs, in every second Rakah one should sit and say the Salaam, thus they become 5 Tarwihaat out of which every 4 are called Tarvih (i.e. 5 times 4 = 20) [Al Ghuniya Tut Talibeen Volume 2, Page No. 25]

3. The Shafi’i Madhab

Imam Tirimdhi (rah) said:
‏ ‏ ‏و قال ‏ ‏الشافعي ‏ ‏وهكذا أدركت ببلدنا ‏ ‏بمكة ‏ ‏يصلون عشرين ركعة
Translation: Imam ash-Shaf’I (Rahimuhullah) said: I found the people of Makkah praying twenty rak’at.” [Sunnan Tirimdhi]

Imam Ghazzali (Rahimuhullah) said:

التراويح وهي عشرون ركعةوكيفيتها مشهورة وهي سنة مؤكدة
Translation: Tarawih consists of “Twenty”Rakahs, Its method is well known and it is Sunnat al Muakdah. (Al-Ghazzali in Ihya Uloom ud din, Volume No.1, Page No. 139)

4. Maliki Madhab
Imam Ibn Rushd al Qurtubi (rah) said: One Qawl of Imam Malik (rah), plus saying of Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi, Imam Ahmed and Dawud al Dhahiri prove 20 Rakahs of Tarawih , Imam Malik has also narrated from Yazid bin Ruman (ra) that during the Era of Umar (ra) people used to do Qiyaam of 20 Rakahs (Tarawih) [Ibn Rushd in Al-Bidayatul Mujtahid, Volume No. 1, Page No. 152]

The Qawl of 36 Rakahs which some people misuse also proves 20 Rakah Tarawih because Imam Malik used to prescribe people to pray “EXTRA 4 RAKAHS” between every Tarvih (i.e. Resting period after every 4 rakahs), so It is not part of Tarawih, hence there is is absolute Ijma on Tarawih being 20, secondly 36 Rakahs is not proven from any of the Khulafa and above all 2 ahadith from Muwatta Imam Malik prove 20. 

Categories: Aqida, Fiqh, Refutation, wahabi

The Definition of Hadith and its Types

The Definition of Hadith and its Types


In the nomenclature of the majority of the Hadith specialists, a Hadith means:

It is the reported speech of the Messenger of Allah, whether this is: (a) explicit (sarih) or (b) implicit (hukmi). It is also the action of the Messenger of Allah, also split into the two categories, and also what someone did or said in front of the Messenger of Allah, but the Messenger of Allah did not condemn that action or what was said, but, in fact remained silent and established it through his action. This is also split into two categories, as mentioned above.

Sarih means that a companion of the Messenger of Allah clearly states that, “I heard the Messenger of Allah state that…” / “I saw the Messenger of Allah doing…” / “such and such a person or a person did such and such a thing or said such and such a thing, but the Messenger of Allah never disapproved of that” ; or a companion or their successor(s) or anyone reports, stating explicitly that: “the Messenger of Allah has said that…” or states that: “It has been transmitted from the Messenger of Allah that he said …”

Hukmi means that any companion who does not transmit anything from the earlier books (such as from the People of the Book) informs of anything in which there is no room for ijtihad – exercising personal judgement. For example, the companion informs us about events about the Prophets; or informs about events that shall happen in the future such as battles, wars and the trials and tribulations that shall inflict the Ummah; informing about the fright of the Day of Judgement; or inform about a specific reward or punishment for an action, as a companion cannot inform about these things without having heard it from the Messenger of Allah. Hukmi also means that a companion does something in which there is no room for ijtihad; they must have seen the Messenger of Allah do it, thus, following the Messenger of Allah the companions have done it. Moreover, a companion states that, “In the blessed era of the Messenger of Allah, people used to do such and such..” this is also Hukmi as it is quite apparent that the Messenger of Allah must have known about their action, as revelation still continued. If that action was impermissible, then the Messenger of Allah must certainly have been informed about it through revelation, and thence, prohibited the companion(s) from doing so.

Hadith can also be defined as to include the reported speech, action or taqreer (tacit approval – what was said or done in front of a companion, and the latter did not condemn it). A companion is such a noble personality, who was blessed with being in the company of the Messenger of Allah, while the companion is in the state of Iman, and also passed away in that state (of Iman).

Hadith also means the reported speech, action or taqreer of the successors to the companions of the Messenger of Allah – the Tabi’un. A successor (Tabi’i) is such a noble personality, who was blessed with being in the company of a companion of the Messenger of Allah, in the state of Iman, and also passed away in the state of Iman.

 


 
Fundamental Division of a Hadith


After knowing the above definitions as mentioned by Hadrat Shaikh ‘Abd al-Haq “Muhaddith-e-Dehlwi”, Hadith can be categorised into three types:

1. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to the Messenger of Allah. This is called marfu’ – ‘the raised-chain’.
2. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to a Companion. This is called mawquf – the ‘halted-chain’.
3. The chain explicitly or implicitly goes to a Successor. This is called maqtu’ – the ‘broken-chain’.

From the point of view of authenticity (proof of genuineness or otherwise) there are many kinds of aHadith, but we shall confine ourselves to mention and examine only three kinds of aHadith which are common among the masses, namely

(1) Hadith-e-Sahih or Accurate
(2) Hadith-e-Hasan or good and reliable and
(3) Hadith-e-Daeef or weak and of doubtful origin.

SAHIH is that which contains these four qualities

(a) The authenticity of which is assured by the contiuance of the chain of Reporters or Narrators (Ravis) is unbroken or uninterrupted from the Holy Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon Him) to the Compiler or Last Reporter (Ravi). This means that there should be no gap in the chain of reporters, one connected with the following or next reporter till the last reporter.

(b) Each reporter or narrator of the Hadith must be a person of righteous moral excellence in all his sayings and deeds in all walks of life. No transgressor (Fasiq) or one whose autecedents or past career is hidden and unknown cannot be accepted as an authentic or qualified Ravi or Reporter of the Hadith

(c) All the reporters must possess healthy retentive memory, without becoming weak on account of illness or senility

(d) The Hadith reported by him must not be rare or of an uncommon or peculiar nature. It must bear the mark of common or natural occurrence or in other words it must not be against well known Hadith called Hadith-e-Mash’hoorah.

HASAN: By this kind of Hadith is meant that its Narrator or reporter may ot possess the qualities required of a Ravi of Sahih Hadith; his righteousness (Taqva) or memory not be of the execllent level or which has been imparied on account of sickness, senility or some accident.

DAEEF: The Narrator of such a Hadith is not righteous or whose memory is not strong and healthy and reliable.

 


 
The Status of Hadith in Religion


It does not need us to explain that the first and foremost primary source of the Sacred Law (Shari’ah) is the Holy Qur’an – the Book of Allah. It is through the clear and explicit commands and teachings of the Holy Qur’an that we are obliged to follow the Messenger of Allah. This is because, without the Messenger of Allah it is merely impossible for anyone to understand the Qur’an; its explanations and meanings, and it is also impossible to learn the detailed rulings of each and every obligation in Islam.

Therefore, the Ahadith of the Messenger of Allah certainly form the second source for the Sacred Islamic Law – the Shari’ah, as these are the one and only means of gaining information as regards the Messenger of Allah; his commands; his sayings; his actions; his explanations and commentaries on the verses of the Holy Qur’an, all of which are necessary for us to know in order for us to understand the Holy Qur’an.

Now, we quote a few of the many verses from the Holy Qur’an, in which on innumerable occasions we have been commanded to follow in the footsteps of the Messenger of Allah. Thus, making it obligatory upon us to follow his teachings.

I. “O believers! Obey Allah and His Messenger and turn not away from him after hearing him…” [Surah:8 – al-Anfal, Verse:20]

II. “And obey Allah and His Messenger and dispute not with one another, otherwise you will show timidity…” [Surah:8 – al-Anfal, Verse:46]

III. “And We did not send any Messenger but that he should be obeyed by Allah’s will.” [Surah:4 – al-Nisa’, Verse:64]

IV. “O beloved! Say, ‘O people! If you love Allah, then follow me; Allah will love you…” [Surah:3 – Al-e-Imran, Verse:31]

V. “then, O beloved! By your Lord, they shall not be Muslims until they make you judge in all disputes among themselves…” [Surah:4 – al-Nisa, Verse:65]

VI. “O believers! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those who have power of command amongst you, then again if there may arise any difference amongst you, refer it to Allah and His Messenger…” [Surah:4 – al-Nisa’, Verse:59]

VII. “O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and let not your deeds go waste.” [Surah:47, Muhammad, Verse:33]

VIII. “He who obeys the Messenger, then verily he has obeyed Allah…” [Surah:4 – al-Nisa’, Verse:80]

IX. “O beloved! Say: ‘Obey Allah and the Messenger.’ then, if they turn away, surely Allah loves not the infidels.” [Surah:3 – Al-e-Imran, Verse:32]

X. “And what the Messenger gives you, take it and what he forbids you, and abstain from it…” [Surah:59 – al-Hashr, Verse:7]

XI. “Surely you have an excellent example for your guidance in (the life of) the Messenger of Allah…” [Surah:33 – al-Ahzab, Verse:21]

It has been clearly established and proven from the above-quoted verses from the Holy Qur’an that it is incumbent upon each and every Muslim to follow the Messenger of Allah, and his teachings.

Therefore, all of the law and orders enforced by the Messenger of Allah are incumbent upon us to follow in the same way, as it is obligatory upon us to follow every Divine command that is transmitted to us by the Holy Qur’an, as the command of the Messenger of Allah is indirectly the command of Allah the Most Exalted.

 

One Fundamental Question:


After having understood all of what has just been explained, we should contemplate and ponder carefully upon a question that is posed: “Is this command of following the Messenger of Allah as reiterated by many verses of the Holy Qur’an (as mentioned above) only related to when the Messenger of Allah was physically alive in this mundane world, or does this apply till the Day of Judgement?”

If – Allah forbid! – this Divine command was specified only to the physical life of the Messenger of Allah, then this would quite simply, in other words, mean that acting upon the Qur’an, following the teachings of Islam is also limited and specified to the blessed era of the Messenger of Allah. This is because to follow the teachings and sayings of the Messenger of Allah were made incumbent upon every single Muslim, only for the fact that without this, it is impossible for anyone to follow the teachings of Islam and the Qur’an. Thus, when it has been commanded to follow Islam, Qur’an and its teachings till the Day of Judgement, then it has been proven that to follow the Messenger of Allah and showing obedience to him is also a command that shall not cease till the Day of Judgement.

 


 
One Great Proof for the Authentication of Ahadith


When it has been clearly understood that to follow Islam and the Qur’an is till the Day of Resurrection, and that it is impossible for anyone to have knowledge and thus act upon the laws and rulings of Islam and the Holy Qur’an without following and imitating the Messenger of Allah, then another fundamental question arises: According to rational thinking, the language, the common law and the Sacred Islamic Law it is always the commands and orders that are followed. Thus, where are those commands and orders enforced by the Messenger of Allah, whose obedience, imitation and following the Qur’an has made obligatory upon us? This is because the demand to follow without having any laws, commands and orders (to follow them) is merely against logic and the Sacred Law itself!

Therefore, when even today the Qur’an demands us to follow, imitate and obey the Messenger of Allah, it is necessary that the laws, orders and commands of the Messenger of Allah are present before us (so that we can ‘follow’). It is apparent that the laws and commands of the Messenger of Allah are not those that have been given by Allah in His Book – the Qur’an, as it is quite sufficient as an obligation upon us to follow these Divine commands. So, we must believe after having stated all of this, that the laws and orders of the Messenger of Allah, whose following and obeying has been made obligatory upon as, are separate to those Divine commands that are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an.

After this introduction, we need not say that the collection of the commands, laws, sayings, actions, explanations to the Qur’anic verses and Sacred laws that have been transmitted to us from the Messenger of Allah are called “Ahadith”.

From this we understand the importance of Ahadith, and its status in Islam. No one would deny its importance, only such a foolish person who denies obedience to the Messenger of Allah – Allah forbid!

 


 
History on the Compilation of the Ahadith


Before we touch upon the merits and virtues of the science of Hadith and what relates to it, it is necessary to explain why the Ahadith were compiled from the blessed era of the Companions till this date and how was the process of compilation?

A very brief insight into this is that the blessed era of the Messenger of Allah was the time when the verses of the Holy Qur’an were being revealed. because the most important task in this era was the collection of these verses and preserving this Divine trust, this was why the Messenger of Allah emphasised over and over again that the Companions compile and write only the verses of the Holy Qur’an – nothing else. This was so that no confusion be made if anything besides the Holy Qur’an would also be recorded.

However, permission was given to memorise, record, preserve and then transmit the Ahadith by tongue. Imam Muslim narrates from Hadrat Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, who reports that the Messenger of Allah has stated, “No one should write my speech. Whosoever has written anything beside the Qur’an should eliminate it; and transmit my Ahadith verbally; there is no harm in doing so. Whosoever attributes a lie to me, then he should prepare for himself an abode in the fire of Hell.”

on top of this, there were some Companions – who had full certainty not to confuse the Verses of the Holy Qur’an from the reported speech of the Messenger of Allah – who wrote the Ahadith.

Imam al-Bukhari narrates on the authority of Hadrat Abu Hurairah who states, “There was none from among the Companions who narrated the most Ahadith except for Hadrat ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (ibn al-‘As); as he used to record them by writing them down, and I did not do that.”

When all of the verses of the Holy Qur’an – some that were written on separate pieces of paper, some on leaves, some on slates, some on deer skin, some that were memorised in the hearts – were collected and compiled into one book form during the blessed era of Hadrat ‘Umar al-Faruq and Hadrat ‘Uthman; and all of the copies of the Holy Qur’an were distributed far and wide to many different countries, by which there was no concern for the verses of the Holy Qur’an being confused with the reported speech (Ahadith) of the Messenger of Allah, the process of collecting, compiling and writing the Ahadith began in the era of the Righteous Caliph ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz upon his suggestion.

The editor of Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti’s commentary on the Alfiyyah states in the introduction that, “when Hadrat ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz was given the responsibility of being a Caliph in the year 99 A.H. he wrote to Hadrat Abu Bakr ibn Hazm – the Shaikh of the Imams Ma’mar, Laith, Awza’i, Malik, ibn Ishaq and Ibn Abi Dhi’b and also the vice of the Caliph in the Court of Justice of al-Madinah al-Munawwarah – to collect and compile all the Ahadith of the Messenger of Allah, as he feared (sacred) knowledge becoming extinct, and the demise of the possessors of this knowledge – the ‘Ulema.” [Introduction to the Alfiyyah – Page 5]

Not only this, but in fact, Hadrat ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz wrote to all those far and wide to collect and compile any Hadith of the Messenger of Allah, they find. [Tarikh Isfahan – Abu Nu’aim]

Upon the motivation, encouragement, and relentless efforts of Hadrat ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, the first book on the science of Hadith was compiled by Hadrat Abu Bakr ibn Hazm. Thereafter, innumerable books were written and compiled on different topics of this precious science of sacred knowledge, by many elite Shuyukh who came from many different places.

Among those who compiled and wrote books of Hadith at this very early age of its compilation were ibn Juraij in Makkah al-Mukarramah; ibn Ishaq and Imam Malik in al-Madinah al-Munawwarah; Rabi’ ibn Sabih, Sa’id ibn ‘Urwah and Hammad ibn Salimah in Basra; Imam Sufyan al-Thawri in Kufa; Imam al-Awza’i in Syro-Palestine; Hisham in Wasit; Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah in Rai, and ibn al-Mubarak in Khurasan. All of these men of great knowledge, were contemporary and of one category. Most of them were the students of Hadrat Abu Bakr ibn Hazm and Imam ibn Shihab al-Zuhri.

Afterwards, the Ahadith were spread far and wide due to the compilation and writing of books on Ahadith; laying down the foundation principles for accepting or rejecting a report; collecting background information of the narrators and their beliefs; writing books on the etiquettes and manners essential for a student pursuing this sacred knowledge of Hadith. All of these were compiled to form a sub-subject of Hadith – Usul-e-Hadith or the Principles of Hadith.

Ahadith were compiled using the rigorous of all criterions and rules to accept a report, until the Six Authentic Collections of Ahadith became accepted and popular. These are the Sahih of Imams Bukhari and Muslim, the Jami’ of Imam al-Tirmidhi, the Sunan of Imams Abu Dawud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

We have shed some light upon Ahadith, its History of Compilation, and its status in Islam. Those true and sincere Muslims who love Islam and the Qur’an, and who recognise themselves as individuals of this Ummah, which is flourishing with its long-lasting heritage of over fourteen hundred years of an unbroken chain of transmission to our liege lord the Messenger of Allah, are not in need of any evidence to prove the veracity of Ahadith.

Yes, however, for those hypocrites who deny the reliability of Ahadith, yet name themselves People of the Qur’an, if I had much time, I would make it apparent like the certitude of the sun at midday with irrefutable proofs and evidences that their denial of the Ahadith is in reality the denial of the words of Allah. They are not doing this only to make way for themselves not to follow the Qur’an.

Their main argument is that the translation and meaning of the verses of the Holy Qur’an should be left to their own will; however they desire they extract the meanings of the Holy Qur’an, so that, even after altering the correct meaning and translation of the Qur’anic verses, they can falsely claim to be the followers of it.

We ask Allah the Most Exalted to protect the Muslim Ummah from the evil of the onslaughts of those who reject Ahadith, and that he gives them guidance to broaden the light of Ahadith to eliminate the darkness that prevails the Ummah today.

His choicest blessings and salutation be upon the best of His creation, our Master Muhammad, his progeny, upon his companions and all of his followers.

 


Extracted From
Ja Al-Haq (The Obliteration of Falsehood)
by Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Na’eemi

Categories: Fiqh

Importance of Fiqh & Excellence of a Faqih

Fiqah refers to Islamic Jurisprudence and is the explanation of the Shariah in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah. There are four well-known schools of Jurisprudence, namely; Hanafi; Shafi’i; Hambali and Maliki. Fiqh plays a very important part in the life of every Muslim. The learned Jurists (Fuqaha) have derived the important rulings of the Shariah based on the commands of Qur’an and Sunnah. The importance of Fiqh and the excellence in understanding the Deen has been mentioned clearly in the Holy Qur’an and the Hadith.

Shafi’i, Malik, Ahmad, Imam-e-Hanif;
Chaar Baag-e-Imamat pe Laakhon Salam
 
 
 Fiqh in the Light of the Qur’an al-Karim
 

Intellect, acumen and understanding are great blessings of Allah. It is necessary for a Muslim to be blessed with these if he wishes to understand the Holy Qur’an, The Hadith, and the secrets and laws that have been mentioned therein.

Almighty Allah says

 

إن في ذلك لآيات لقوم يعقلون
‘Verily, in it are signs for those who understand’ [Surah al-Rome, Verse 24]
 

In another verse of the Holy Qur’an Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala says

 

إن في ذلك لآيات لقوم يتفكرون
‘Verily, in it are signs for those who deliberate.’ [Surah al-Rome, Verse 21]
 

Almighty Allah says

 

وتلك الأمثال نضربها للناس لعلهم يتفكرون
‘And We present these examples for the people, so that they may contemplate’ [Surah al-Hashr, Verse 21]
 

Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala says

 

قد فصلنا الآيات لقوم يفقهون
‘Undoubtedly, we have explained the signs in detail; for those who understand.’ [Surah al-An’aam Verse 98]
 

The above mentioned verses of the Holy Qur’an make it very clear that to attain Tafaqquh fid Deen, i.e. proper understanding and appreciation of the Deen; one has to be blessed with intellect and the capability to understand.

Those who have been blessed with the knowledge of Deen and especially with the knowledge of Fiqh are those who have been bestowed with special blessings by Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala.

The Holy Qur’an makes it very clear that those with knowledge and those who are unaware are not alike. Almighty Allah says

 

قل هل يستوي الذين يعلمون والذين لا يعلمون إنما يتذكر أولو الألباب
‘(O Beloved) Say you; Are those who know and those who know not equal? Surely, it is the wise alone that recognize the guidance.’ [Surah al-Zumar, Verse 9]
 

Almighty Allah says:

 

ومن يؤت الحكمة فقد أوتي خيرا كثيرا
‘And he, who has been blessed with wisdom, has surely been blessed with great virtue.’ [Surah al-Baqarah, Verse 269]
 

It must be noted that the Mufasireen (commentators of the Qur’an) have mentioned that wherever in the Qur’an the mention of Wisdom has come, it refers to the knowledge of Fiqh. The importance of Fiqh, i.e. understanding the Deen is also evident from this verse of the Holy Qur’an.

Almighty Allah says

 

فلولا نفر من كل فرقة منهم طائفة ليتفقهوا في الدين ولينذروا قومهم إذا رجعوا إليهم لعلهم يحذرون
‘And it is not possible for all the believers to go out (at once); Then why should a delegation not come forth from every grouping, so that they may attain the understanding of Religion, thereafter returning to their people, warning them, in the hope that they may remain guarded. [Surah al-Tawbah, Verse 122]
 

Whilst explaining this verse of the Holy Qur’an, Sadrul Afaadil Allama Sayyid Na’eemud’deen Muradabadi Alaihir raHma wa ar-Ridwan says:

 

‘It is not necessary for every person to become an Aalim or Faqih. However, every individual has to attain sufficient knowledge to be able to differentiate between that which is lawful and unlawful, and to know what Fard is and what Waajib is. To acquire this amount of knowledge is Fard-e-‘Ain upon every Muslim, and to acquire more knowledge than this is Fard-e-Kifaayah. It has been mentioned in the Hadith, that it is Fard upon every Muslim to acquire knowledge (of Deen).’ [Tafseer Khazain al-Irfan]
 

 The Excellence of a Faqih in the Light of Hadith
 

Up to now, we have mentioned the importance of Fiqh in the light of the Holy Qur’an. This has been further explained and clarified in the Hadith Sharif.

Hadrat Sayyiduna Ameer Mu’awiyah Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu has reported that the Beloved Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him) said:

 

من يرد الله به خيرا يفقهه في الدين
‘If Allah wills to bestow someone with special virtue; He makes him a Faqih of the Religion’.
 

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Chapter 13, Page 137, Hadith 71
Sahih Muslim, Volume 6, Chapter 34, Page 396, Hadith 2439
Mishkat al-Masabih, Volume 1, Page 43, Hadith 200

Hadrat Abu Hurairah Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu reported that Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallam said:

 

خيارهم في الجاهلية خيارهم في الإسلام إذا فقهوا
‘Those who were good in the days of ignorance are also good in Islam, if they have understanding of the Deen.’
 

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 12, Chapter 8, Page 20, Hadith 3353
Sahih Muslim, Volume 15, Chapter 44, Page 450, Hadith 6311
Mishkat al-Masabih, Volume 1, Page 43, Hadith 201

In this Hadith, Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallam mentioned that people are bestowed with being better, on the basis of Fiqh, i.e. on the basis of their understanding of their Deen. This also proves that according to Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallam, one of the best qualities in a person is for him to have knowledge of Fiqh.

Once the Holy Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him) made the following Dua for Hadrat Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu by saying:

 

اللهم فقهه في الدين
‘O Allah! Make him a Faqih of the Religion.’
 

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Chapter 10, Page 260, Hadith 143
Sahih Muslim, Volume 16, Chapter 45, Page 195, Hadith 6523
Mishkat al-Masabih, Volume 3, Page 340, Hadith 6139

Hadrat Ibn ‘Abbas Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu says that Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallam said

 

فقيه واحد أشد على الشيطان من ألف عابد
‘One Faqih is more superior over shaitaan, than a thousand worshippers.’
 

Sunan Tirmidhi, Volume 10, Chapter 19, Page 203, Hadith 2897
Sunan Ibn Majah, Volume 1, Chapter 39, Page 267, Hadith 227
Mishkat al-Masabih, Volume 1, Page 47, Hadith 217

From this Hadith it is evident that a single Faqih (Jurist) is more powerful over shaitaan, than a thousand devout worshippers. The reason for this is that due to the knowledge which Almighty Allah has bestowed upon him, and due to his understanding of the Deen, he is able to recognise and avoid the traps and the trickery of shaitaan. In reality, he becomes the one who assist others to be protected from the trickery and deception of shaitaan.
 
In Ilm al-Hadith, there are two things that are fundamental. The first being, the authenticity of the chain of transmission, and its narration; and the second being its meaning and understanding it. The Muhaditheen of the Ummah memorised and preserved the words and chain of transmission of the Hadith, whereas the distinguished Fuqaha carried the responsibility of understanding its true meaning and wisdom. It should also be noted that the distinguished Fuqaha also have complete expertise and proficiency in the subject of Hadith. One incident pointing to the importance and excellence of the Fuqaha is as follows:

Khateeb Baghdadi Alaihir raHma wa ar-Ridwan mentions that a Group of Muhaditheen were present, when a woman who used to bathe deceased females came forth and asked a question, ‘Can a female who is menstruating give Ghusl to a female who has passed away or not?’

Imam Yahya bin Mu’een, Abu Hatheema, Zuhair bin Harb, and Khalf bin Saalim etc. who are regarded amongst distinguished Muhaditheen were present there. Each one of them began to look at the other, and none of them was able to give an answer immediately. At that time, Imam Abu Thaur who with the exception of being a Muhadith; was also a Mujtahid and a Faqih, passed by. The lady approached him and queried regarding the said issue. He said ‘Yes, a female who is menstruating is permitted to give Ghusl to a deceased female.’ The reason being that once Rasoolullah SallAllaho Alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallam said to Hadrat A’isha Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anha:

حيضتك ليس في يدك
‘Your menstruation is not in your hand’.

It is also mentioned in the Hadith that whilst in the condition of Haidh, Hadrat A’isha Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anha used to sprinkle water in the hair of the Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him) and she would comb a path in his hair. So, if in such a condition, water can be poured onto the head of a living person, why then can a deceased not be given Ghusl?’

When the distinguished Muhaditheen heard this Fatwa of Imam Abu Thaur they began to discuss the chain of transmission of the Hadith he had mentioned, mentioning who its narrators were and how it was narrated. When the woman heard this, she said ‘Where were you all this while?’ In other words, she tried to say that if that were the case, why then did they not give the answer’. [Tareekh-e-Baghdad, Volume 6, Page 67]


Compiled from the Book

‘Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa’ by
Allama Sayyid Shah Turab al-Haq Qadiri
Categories: Fiqh

Mashwara-Opinion

From Fatawa Ridawiyyah, vol.18, p.490
RasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam was not in need of advice [mashwarah] from anyone. He is not dependant on anything in the universe except his Lord. Hence, for him to ask the opinion of his companions was to honour them and also to teach them about Ijtihad and to make it a Sunnah for the ummah. The dear

Prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam himself said:

“Indeed Allah and His Prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam are not in need of counsel from anyone but Allah has made the practice of seeking opinions a mercy upon my ummah. He who seeks advice from others will find guidance and he who refuses will inevitably commit mistakes”.

ibn ‘Adi and Bayhaqi narrate this from ibn ‘Abbas radiyAllahu ta’ala anhuma with aHasan [good] chain. Bayhaqi has it in Shu’b al-Iman, Hadith 7542, Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah, Beirut – 6/77; Durr al-Manthur from Bayhaqi and ibn ‘Adi. Maktaba Ayatullahal-‘Azmi, Qum, Iran – 2/90

Imam Hasan al-Basri says:

“Allah knows that rasulAllah sallAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam does not need their advice but
His will is to make it a Sunnah [for the ummah]”.Sa’eed bin Mansur narrated it in his Sunan and also ibn Mundhar, Bayhaqi and Abu Hatim. al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya, al-Maqsad al-Rabi’, al-Fasl al-Thani, al-Maktab al-Islami, Beirut – 2/601

Categories: Aqida, Fiqh

Authenticity of Hadith Regarding Salat-ut-Tasbeeh

Authenticity of Hadith Regarding Salat-ut-Tasbeeh

The ruling regarding Salat-ut-Tasbeeh is that it is permissible and, in fact, very meritorious.

The Hadith in question has been accepted as Sahih (authentic) or Hasan (sound) by various eminent Masters of Hadith. Those that claimed that it was weak did so on the basis of a few chains of the narration. However, if all the various chains be gathered, there will remain no doubt as to its authenticity.

Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalaani (RA) states that sometimes a Muhaddith classifies a certain Hadith as weak, very weak or even as a fabrication based on one or two chains that were available to him, whereas there may be other chains through which that Hadith may be classified as Hasan (sound) or even Sahih (authentic). (Anukat vol.2 pg.848-850)

Hafiz ibn Hajar (RA) then mentions the Hadith of Salat-ut-Tasbeeh as an example for this and he accepts it to be in fact either Sahih (authentic) or Hasan (sound) and not Dha’eef (weak). (Ibid)

Imaam Tirmidhi (RA) says that many Ulama, among them Imaam Abdullah ibn al-Mubaarak (RA), have accepted the virtue of Salat-ut-Tasbeeh. (Tirmidhi vol.2 pg.348; Hadith 481)

Imaam Bayhaqi (RA) states that ‘ Salat-ut-Tasbeeh was the practice of Abdullah ibn al-Mubaarak and may pious predecessors of various eras. And this in fact lends strength to its acceptability.’ (Shu’ubul Imaam vol.1 pg.427; Ilmiyyah)

Allaamah Munzhiri (RA) mentions: Many Muhadditheen have accepted it’s authority from among them are: 1) Imaam Abu-bakr al-Ajurriy, 2) Imaam Abu Muhammad al-Misriy (Ustaadh of Allaamah Munzhiri), 3) Hafiz Abul-Hasan Maqdisi (Ustaadh of Allaamah Munzhiri), 4) Imaam Abu-Dawud and 5) Imaam Haakim. (Targheeb vol.1 pg.468)

Allaamah Suyuti (RA) has enumerated upto 20 great Muhadditheen who have accepted its authenticity. Besides those that are mentioned above, some of them are: 6) Hafiz Abu-Sa’eed al-Sam’aaniy, 7) Hafiz Khateeb al-Baghdaadiy, 8) Hafiz ibn-Mandah, 9) Imaam Bayhaqi, 10) Imaam al-Subkiy, 11) Imaam al-Nawawiy, 12) Haafiz ibn al-Salat, 13) Hafiz Abu-Musa al-Madiniy, 14) Hafiz al-Alaaeiy, 15) Imaam Siraaj-ud-Deen al-Bulqiniy, 16) Hafiz al-Zarkashiy and a few others. (al-Laalil Masnoo’ah vol.2 pg.42-44)

The following list of Muhadditheen is of those who have written detailed articles on this matter: 1) Imaam al-Daraaniy, 2) Imaam Abu-Musa al-Madiniy,

3) Imaam ibn Mandah, 4) Hafiz ibn Naasirud-Deen ad-Dimishqiy, Allaamah al-Suyyooti.

As for the claim of the writer, ‘It had been unknown to the great Imaams. and presumably Imaam Shaafi’ee (RA).’

This is a claim that lacks the support of explicit quotations from those illustrious Imams as well as any reference. In fact, the books of Hanafi Fiqh support the view of its acceptance. (refer Shaami vol.2 pg.27; HM Saeed). And several Shaafi’ee Jurists have also endorsed it, namely Imaam al-Muhaamiliy, Imaam al-Juwaini, Imaam-ul-haramayn, Imaam Ghazaaliy, Imaam Raafi’ee and others. (al-La-aaliy vol.2 pg.43; al-Azkaar of Imaam Nawawiy pg.242)

Khateeb Baghdaadiy (RA), who is Maaliki, states that there is no reason for it not being permissible. In fact, Imaam ibn Hajar (RA) has mentioned a quotation from Imaam Maaliki from which it could be deduced that it was acceptable in his Madhab. (refer Futuhaat al-Rabbaaniyyah vol.4 pg.321) Qaadhi Iyaad Maaliki (RA) has also accepted its virtue. (Ibid)

As far as Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (RA) is concerned, Hafiz ibn Hajar (RA) has stated that he had reversed his decision and was possibly inclined towards its acceptability later on. (Futuhaat al-Rabbaaniyyah vol.4 pg.318, 320)

From the above, it is apparent that there can be no doubt regarding Salat-ut-Tasbeeh being an act of virtue which has been established authentically. And is accepted by a large number of celebrated scholars of Hadith as well as the scholars of Fiqh (jurisprudence).

Imaams Taajud-Deen Subki (RA) and Badrud-Deen Zarkashi have stated that it is from the fundamentals of Deen and anyone who discards it despite knowing its virtue is not on the correct path. (Futuhaat vol.4 pg.321-322)

And Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Categories: Aqida, Fiqh

Hadith on 15th of Shaaban

Very early Hadith books such as the Mussanaf of Abdul Razzaq Ibn Humam
(May Allaah have mercy on him) (126-211 AH)( Ref: Musannaf Abdur Razzaq 4/317) and the Musnad of Ahmed bin Hanbal (May Allaah have mercy on him) (164-241 AH) ( Ref: Musnad Ahmad 2/176 & 6/238)contain Ahadith relating to the virtues of 15th Sha’ban.

Even within the famous Six Books of Hadith (al-Kutub al-Sittah), Trimdhi ( Ref: Jami’ Al-Trimidhi: Kitab Al-Sawm, Bab “Ma ja’a fi Laylatin Nisfi min Sha.ban” #739 (Vol.3 p107))and Ibn Majah (Sunan Ibn Majah: Kitab Al-Iqamah, Bab “Ma Ja’a Fi Laylatun Nifsi min Sha’ban” #1388 (Vol. 1 p444) have devoted a special chapter on “The Night of the Middle of Sha’ban” in their Hadith collections. In fact there are over a dozen Ahadith available which establish the significance of the night of the 15th of Sha’ban.


There are many hadith on the merits of this Night and some of them are weak ( dai’f).However, it is to be noted that not all of the ‘weak’ Ahadith suffer from major weaknesses and in fact the minor weaknesses in some Ahadith are curable and strengthened by other narrations. 

( Wahabi Scholar Albani : : Silsilah Al-Ahadith Al Sahihah 3/135)

When all the numerous weak Ahadith are combined together, they reach a level of acceptability among Hadith scholars equivalent to being ‘Hasan’ (good).

Here are a few Sahih (Authentic) Hadith on the merits on the Night of 15 th of Shaba’an.

Hadith 1





Ibn Hibban narrated from Mu`adh ibn Jabal in his Sahih the following narration which the hadith scholar and editor of the Sahih Shu`ayb Arna’ut confirmed as sound:
The Prophet said : yattali`u Allahu ila khalqihi fi laylati al-nisfi min sha`bana fa-yaghfiru li-jami`i khalqihi illa li mushrikin aw mushahin.
Allah looks at His creation in the night of mid-Sha`ban and He forgives all His creation except for a mushrik (idolater) or a mushahin (one bent on hatred).

( Reference: Al-Tabarani: Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabir 20/108-9, Ibn Hibban:
Sahih Ibn Hibban 7/470, Al-Bayhaqi: Shu’bal Iman 2/288, Abulhasan
Al-Qazwini: Al-Amali 4/2, Ibn ‘Asakir: Al-Tarikh 15/302 & Ibn Abi ‘Asim:Al-Sunna1/224)

Note :

1)Ibn Hibban (May Allaah have mercy on him) considered this Hadith to be Sahih.

(Ibn Rajab: Lataif Al-Ma’arif 1/224)

2)And Ibn Hajr Al-Haytami (May Allaah have mercy on him) said: “This Hadith is related by Al-Tabarani (May Allaah have mercy on him) in Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabir and Al-Awsat and the narrators of both are trustworthy”(thiqat) ( Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami: Majma’ Al-Zawaid 8/65)

3)The great hadith scholar of the present time , Shaykah Shuayb Al-Arna’uat ( Rh) and the self claimed Wahabi hadith scholar Nasiruddin Al-Albani, have also considered this Hadith as ‘Sahih’.

( Ref: – Shuayb Al-Arna’ut: Al-Ihsan fi Taqrib Sahih Ibn Hibban 12/481 #5665 & Nasiruddin Al-Albani: Silsilah Al-Ahadith Al-Sahihah 3/135 #1144 ) 

Hadith 2

There is another identical Hadith related from the Companion Abdullah b.’Amr (May Allaah be pleased with him) which says that the Prophet(Sallalahu Alaihi Wassalam) said: “Allah looks at His creation during the night of the 15th of Sha’ban and He forgives His servants except two- one intent on hatred (mushanin) and a murderer (qatilu nafs).

( Ref : Musnad Ahmad 2/176 #6642. Al-Bazzar also related this Hadith and he classified it as ‘hasan’. )

Note :
In his edition of Musnad Ahmed, Shaykh Ahmed Shakir has classified this Hadith as’Sahih’ and Nasiruddin Al-Albany classified it is ‘Hasan’

( Al-Albani: Silsilah Al-Ahadith Al-Sahihah 3/136).


Hadith 3
A s
imilar narration as above , but narrated by Abu Bakr Siddiq Rd .

It has been classified as sound by Haafiz al-Munzhiri (RA) in his al-Targheeb (vol.3 pg.459). This narration is of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and is recorded by Imaam Bazzaar (RA) in his Musnad. In fact, Hafiz ibn Hajar (RA) has also classified one of its chains as Hasan (sound). (al-Amaalil mutlaqah pgs.119-120)

An important Note:

All the weak hadith which talks about the merits of 15th of Shaba’an, have got only minor weakness in them. Going by the principle of hadith, these weak hadiths also strengthen each other.

Besides the above, there are many other Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum) that narrated Ahaadith regarding the merit of this night, such as: Abu Hurayra (Musnad al-Bazzaar), Abu Tha’labah (Shu’ubul Imaan), Awf ibn Maalik (Musnad al-Bazzaar), Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas (Musnad Ahmad Hadith6642), Abu Moosa al-Ash’ari (ibn Majah Hadith1390; Shu’ubul Imaan Hadith3833) and others. The collective strength of these narrations cannot be refuted.

What the Scholars have said about this Night:

1) The general virtue of this night has been accepted by many great Ulama of the past. From among many great scholars which have agreed to the virtue of this night are: Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz, Imaam al-Shaafi’ee, Imaam al-Awzaa’ie, Attaa ibn Yassaar, Imaam al-Majd ibn Taymiyah, ibn Rajab al-Hambaliy and Hafiz Zaynu-ddeen al-Iraaqiy (Rahmatullaahi alayhim) .

Refer Lataiful Ma’aarif of Hafiz ibn Rajab pgs.263-264 and Faydhul Qadeer vol.2 pg.317.


2) Even Ibn Taymiyya – the putative authority of “Salafis” — considered the night of mid-Sha`ban “a night of superior merit” in his Iqtida’ al-sirat al-mustaqim:
[Some] said: There is no difference between this night (mid-Sha`ban) and other nights of the year. However, the opinion of many of the people of learning, and that of the majority of our companions (i.e. the Hanbali school) and other than them is that it is a night of superior merit, and this is what is indicated by the words of Ahmad (ibn Hanbal), in view of the many ahadith which are transmitted concerning it, and in view of what confirms this from the words and deeds transmitted from the early generations (al-athar al-salafiyya). Some of its merits have been narrated in the books of hadith of the musnad and sunan types. This holds true even if other things have been forged concerning it.

( Ref:Ibn Taymiyya, Iqtida’ al-sirat al-mustaqim (1369/1950 ed.) p. 302.)

Ibn Taymiayh also said 

“ As for the middle night of Sha’baan, there are various narrations that have been narrated regarding its significance and it has been reported from a group of the Salaf (predecessors) that they performed Salaat in it individually, hence, such a deed cannot be disputed.’

(Majmoo’ al-Fataawa ibn Taymiyah vol.23 pg.132)

3) Imam Suyuti (Rh)says in his Haqiqat al-sunna wa al-bid`a:
“As for the night of mid-Sha`ban, it has great merit and it is desirable (mustahabb) to spend part of it in supererogatory worship.”

( Ref: Suyuti, Haqiqat al-sunna wa al-bid`a aw al-amr bi al-ittiba` wa al-nahi `an al-ibtida` (1405/1985 ed.) p. 58. He adds: “However, this must be done alone, not in congregation.”)


4. Imam Haskafi ( Rh) said in his Durr al-Mukhtar, one of the primary references in the Hanafi school:

“Among the recommended [prayers] are on. . . . the nights of the two Eids, the middle of Sha`ban, the last ten of Ramadan, and the first [ten] of Dhul-Hijjah”.

5. Imam Nawawi ( Rh) mentioned in his Majmu`, where he also quoted Imam al-Shafi`i from the latter’s al-Umm that it has reached him that there are 5 nights when dua is answered, one of them being the night of the 15th of Sha`ban.


End Note 

Only Sahih hadiths have been quoted above. The weak hadith on this topic suffer only from minor weakness . There is general consensus that weak hadiths may be acted upon for virtuous acts, such as voluntary fasting and prayer, as long as the hadith is not excessively weak, returns to a general basis in the Shariah, and one is not convinced that the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) specifically prescribed it.

There are many other narrations from the Companions and early Muslims confirming the merits of this night as mentioned by Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali in his Lata’if al-Ma`arif, and others.
Categories: Aqida, Fiqh

Position of feet in salah: wahabi mistake

The Feet In Salaat -

The Salafi ErrorIntroductionIn this fourteenth century of the Islamic era, a recently mushroomed sect known as the Salafis, has invented some new rules which they believe are the Sunnat teachings of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Inspite of their views being in conflict with the teachings of the Salf-e-Saaliheen belonging to the Noblest Ages of Islam (Khairul Quroon), they obstinately cling to their misguided opinions. Their method is to subject the Ahadith to their personal understanding. Inspite of the divergence which this self-opinion produces from the Way of the Ummah inherited from the Sahaabah, the Salafis intransigently cling to their deviation.

A little reflection would convince them that it is not possible that the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen who were the Students of the Sahaabah would propagate acts which are in conflict with the Sunnah. Any act which has been accepted and practised by the entire Ummah from the earliest era of Islam cannot be deviation. Deviation will be the act which is in conflict with this sacred Unanimity.

One of the erroneous practices of the Salafis is their act of spreading their legs wide apart during Salaat. In the bid to touch the toes of the musalli standing adjacent to them, they disfigure their stance and ruin their composure with the mental preoccupation of touching the toes of the musallis standing on both sides in the Saff during Jamaat Salaat. Even when performing Salaat alone, they stretch the legs hideously apart. But for this innovation they have absolutely no Shar’i evidence. A solitary Hadith which makes reference to ‘foot with foot’ has been grievously misunderstood and misinterpreted by them. Besides their misinterpretation, they have intentionally ignored all the other Shar’i proofs which refute their interpretation.

A perusal of the relevant Ahadith on this subject will convince every unbiased Muslim that the Salafi interpretation of the Hadith is a concoction of the nafs. It is a concoction designed and prepared by shaitaan to create rifts and discord in the Ummah. When people opt to abandon the practices which the Aimmah Mujtahideen have reported on the basis of the authority of the Sahaabah, then shaitaani manipulation is evident.

All four Math-habs of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah unanimously refute the Salafi contention on the position to be adopted when standing for Salaat. None of the Math-habs teaches that the legs should be spread out widely when standing for Salaat nor that the toes of the Musalli alongside should be touched. Some of the Salafis go to great lengths in spreading their legs in the bid to touch the next man’s toes causing annoyance and much irritation.

The Emphasis on Straghtening the Sufoof(Sufoof is the plural of saff which refers to the row of musallis in a Jamaat)

The Ahadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) emphasise the straightening of the sufoof. The emphasis in all the Hadith narrations dealing with this subject is directed to proper saff*-formation, not on the feet of the musallis touching the toes of the musalli standing alongside as the Salafis inordinately and inconsiderately practice.

In the endeavour to sustain the practice of stretching the legs wide open while performing Salaat, the Salafis have gone to the extreme of adopting this ugly stance even when performing Salaat alone. While a man who is uneducated in the laws of the Shariah may misunderstand the solitary Hadith in which reference has been made to “foot with foot”, the same mistake cannot and should not be made in so far as Salaat performed alone because the question of “foot with foot” is not remotely related to infiraadi Salaat, i.e. performing Salaat alone.

The Salafis may abortively argue that the aim of spreading the legs wide apart is to ensure straightness of the sufoof, but what argument do they have for justifying this unbecoming practice when a man is performing Salaat infiraadan(individually)? Furthermore, there is no Hadith narration in this regard which could even be misinterpreted to support the case of a munfarid stretching his legs to the extremities of east and west or north and south, depending on the location of the Qiblah from where he happens to be.

The Salafis claim that it is Sunnah to stretch the legs wide apart and for a musalli’s toes to touch the toes of the musalli standing alongside him in the saff. This ludicrous position is imposed by the Salafis on even women who are obliged to stand with their legs wide open. What an ugly, miserable and immodest stance for a woman to adopt? A woman is an object of concealment according to the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). When she has to stretch her legs wide open, she adopts the stance of lewd and shameless women. Throughout Salaat, a woman’s postures are to be constricted — made small and drawn in, not asserted like a man asserts and expresses his actions during Salaat.

As far as their stance is concerned for the munfarid, there is not a single Hadith which they can cite in substantiation for their view which anyhow is utterly baseless. All the relevant Ahadith on this topic teach the contrary, namely, that the feet should be held slightly apart — about four to five inches (10 cm). There also exists consensus of the Four Math-habs on this issue.

As far as the feet position for the saff is concerned, the Salafis conveniently overlook all the Ahadith which negate their corrupt view and intransigently cling to a view which they have understood to be the method. In taking to this view, they deliberately cast aside what exactly the Hadith in question says. They took a single word (namely ‘foot with foot’) out of the context of the Hadith and formulated the practice of stretching the legs wide apart and touching the toes of the musallis standing alongside on either side in the saff. For understanding this issue, it is best that we cite all the relevant Ahadith.

The Ahadith

1. Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Straighten the sufoof, line up the shoulders, close the gaps and become tender in the hands of your brothers. Do not leave any gaps for shaitaan. Whoever joins the saff, Allah will join him. And whoever cuts the saff Allah will cut him.” (Bukhari & Abu Dawood)[Become tender: that is to comply when a brother musalli in the saff touches your shoulder indicating that you should bring it in line with the shoulders of the other musallis in the saff.]

2. Hadhrat Baraa’ Bin Aazib (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) used to enter the saff from end to end, touching our chests and our shoulders. He would say:“Do not be irregular (in your rows), for then your hearts will become irregular (i.e. discord will overtake you).” He would (also) say:“ Verily, Allah Azza Wa Jal and His Malaaikah dispatch Salaam on the first sufoof” [When the word ‘Salaat’ is related to Allah Ta ‘ala, it denotes Rahmat, i.e. He sends down mercy. When it is related to the Malaaikah, it means that they supplicate to Allah Ta`ala to send His mercy upon His servants.]

3. Hadhrat Anas Bin Maalik (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Iqaamah for Salaat was given. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) turned towards us and said: “Straighten your sufoof and stand close together, for verily I see you from behind.” In a narration of Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) it is mentioned: “Everyone among us would put his shoulder with the shoulder of his companion (alongside) and his foot with his foot.”

4. Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Join your sufoof and stand close together, and stand in line with (your) necks. I take oath by The Being in Whose power is my life that most certainly I see shaitaan entering the gaps in the saff as if he is a lamb.” (Abu Dawood)

5. Abul Qaasim Jadli (rahmatullah alayh) said :“I heard Nu’maan Bin Basheer (radhiyallahu anhu) say: ‘Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) turned towards the people (the musallis) and say three times: ‘By Allah! Most certainly, you should straighten your sufoof otherwise Allah will create discord in your hearts.’ Thereafter I saw that a man would attach his shoulder to the shoulder of his companion (the one standing alongside), his knee to the knee of his companion and his ankle to the ankle of his companion.” (Bukhari & Abu Dawood)

6. Nu’maan Bin Basheer (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: “Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) would arrange (set in order) our sufoof. One day he came out (from his home) and saw a man (in the saff) whose chest was protruding in front of the (chests of) the community (i.e. the musallis). He then commented: ‘Straighten your sufoof otherwise Allah will cast discord in your faces (i.e. in the words coming from your mouths).” (Tirmizi)

7. Maalik Ibn Abi Aamir Ansaari (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: “Uthmaan Bin Affaan (radhiyallahu anhu) would recite in his Khutbah: ‘When the Salaat is ready, arrange the sufoof properly and line up with the shoulders’ (i.e. the shoulders of the musallis should all be in line and touching).” (Muatta Imaam Muhammad)

8. Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Join your sufoof and draw close among yourselves and line up with the necks.” Reported by Abu Dawood and Nisai. Authenticated by Ibn Hibbaan. (Bulooghul Maraam)–*I’laaus Sunnan.

These are about all the narrations pertaining to the manner and style of standing in Jamaat Salaat.

Explaining these Ahadith, Imaam Bukhaari (rahmatullah alayh) states in the section captioned:“JOINING SHOULDER TO SHOULDER”:

“This is what the Jamhoor have said: ‘Verily, the meaning (of joining in this context) is complete nearness and lining up, not actual joining (or touching).’” Al-Haafiz said: “The meaning of this is to emphasise in straightening the saff and closing the gaps.” And Aini too has said so. With this, the indication is towards emphasis in straightening the sufoof and closing the gaps. Qustulaani and others have also said this.”(Laamiud Duraari—commentary of Bukhari)In Faidhul Baari it is reported as follows:“It is stated in Sharhul Wiqaayah: ‘The musalli should stand apart (with his feet) so that there is a distance of four fingers in between them, and that is also the view of Imaam Shaafi (rahmatullah alayh), In another view it is said that the distance (between the feet) should be one hand (i.e. about 10 cm).’ (The author says): I did not find any difference of opinion among the Salf (i.e. Salf-e-Saaliheen) between the stance (of the musalli) in Jama’ah and in infiraad (i.e. performing alone). There is no difference regarding the gap (between the feet). It is not that the spreading of the feet should be more in Jama’ah than when performing Salaat alone.”

The summary of this is: When we do not find the Sahaabah and the Taabi-een differentiating in their standing position between Jama’ah and individual Salaat, then we understand that the only meaning of Rasulullah’s statement of ‘joining the shoulders’ is to line up closely and to abstain from leaving gaps (between the musallis).

The following appears in Laamiud Duraari, Commentary of Saheeh Bukhaari:“The Authorities (the Fuqaha) stated that it is best for the musalli to keep his feet about four fingers apart. They did not say that the feet should be united in ruku’ or sajdah. Aini says in Binaayah: ‘It is appropriate that there be the distance of four fingers between the feet of the musalli, for verily, this is nearest to khushoo.’”

Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhuma) would not spread (widely) his feet nor would the one foot touch the other, but between this there would be neither much closeness nor much distance.

In Raddul Mihtaar it is reported as follows:“The meaning of joining ankles to ankles is that everyone in the Jama’ah should stand alongside the other (i.e. in a straight line). So is it said in Fataawa Samarqand).” (I’laaus Sunan).

From all the narrations and views of the Muhadditheen and Fuqaha of the Khairul Quroon era it is abundantly clear that the Hadith which mentions joining foot with foot does not have a literal meaning. It simply means that the feet should be all in line, and this is achieved by the heels of the musallis all being in the same line. This will ensure a straight saff on which the emphasis of all the Ahadith is.

The Salafis

The Salafis of this age, while grabbing the words ‘foot with foot’, ignore ‘neck with neck’, ‘shoulder with shoulder’, ‘knee with knee’ and ‘ankle with ankle’. The narrations command joining of the necks just as it instructs joining of the feet. And, in the same way it commands joining of the knees and ankles. How is it possible for the neck of one musalli to touch the neck of the musalli alongside? At most, shoulders can touch. But to achieve the phenomenal act of joining necks, the musallis will have to ruin their Salaat and stand on their toes balancing at a precarious angle to achieve the goal of touching each other’s neck. But no one has ever advocated this ludicrous stance. Similarly, if the literal sense of the ‘ankle with ankle’ has to be accepted, it will place the musallis under great stress to achieve what is not simple because the protruding heels are barriers for this achievement. Also, if ‘knee against knee’ had to be literally considered, the musallis would have to stand with ugly bandied legs, stretching even their thighs hideously in order to join their knees with the knees of their companions? But, not even the Salafis have ventured such ludicrousness.

Why do the Salafis choose only ‘foot with foot’ out of the several instructions pertaining to the joining of various bodily parts? For this choice they have only their intransigent nafsaani desire –no daleel whatsoever. What is the determining factor to choose only feet and to ignore necks, knees, shoulders and ankles? On the other hand, the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah — the followers of the Four Math-habs — *have a mass of evidence to support ‘joining of the shoulders’. Furthermore, joining or lining up of the shoulders is simple, rational and fulfills in the best way the instruction of straightening the saff.

It should be noted that the emphasis is on closing the gaps. There should be no gap between two musallis standing in the saff. But, the wider the legs are spread apart, the more the distance between the shoulders will increase. Thus, spreading the legs wide apart defeats the very command issued in the Hadith to close the gaps and straighten the sufoof.

In order to achieve ‘foot with foot’ literally, the Salafis are constrained to turn their feet at angles away from the Qiblah. In this hideous exercise they manage only to touch the toes of the adjacent musalli with much difficulty and irritation to those whose peace of mind is disturbed with the unruly encroachment of his companion’s toes. When the toes are made to touch with the feet in diagonal positions, the shoulders cannot touch, the knees, ankles, necks, etc. are thrown completely out of alignment.

When shoulders are not lined up, it is impossible to achieve straight sufoof. It is for this reason that the Hadith emphasises more on shoulders. Feet are mentioned only once. The Sahaabah and the Taabi-een relate the instruction ‘to line up’ and straighten the saff to the shoulders, necks, knees, ankles and the feet. In other words, all these should be in line, not out of alignment. It is for this reason that the Hadith clearly mentions that the Khulafa-e-Raashideen, in fact Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) himself, would order protruding chests to recede into line. Never did any of the Authorities of the Shariah speak about feet which should touch.

In the adoption of the Salafi mode, the movement is excessive in Salaat. Neither is proper Ruku’ nor proper Sajdah possible if this hideous posture has to be retained throughout Salaat. In fact Sajdah is not at all possible with the feet spread wide apart. Therefore, the Salafis are constrained to shift positions repeatedly when going to ruku’. This excessive movement in Salaat in negatory of khushoo’.

THE FOUR MATH-HABS

While the case of the Four Math-habs is logical, the actual daleel (proof) for our view is not rational interpretation, but is narrational evidence. Such evidence has been transmitted down the centuries from the Sahaabah. It should be understood that the Aimmah-e-*Mujtahideen — the Imaams of the Math-habs — had acquired their knowledge of Islam from either the Sahaabah or the Taabi-een who were the Students of the Sahaabah. Whatever they taught is therefore, what the Sahaabah had instructed. It is the height of folly and deviation to differ with them and to choose a way which is at variance with what they had disseminated.

It is not conceivable that the Salf-e-Saaliheen — all the Imaams of the Math-bas were among them — were in deviation and the present-day Salafis are on Rectitude. This is unacceptable to any Muslim who is prepared to reflect a bit. The greatest daleel for the view of the Math-habs is that whatever they teach has been acquired directly from either the Sahaabah or the Taabi-een.

The Salafi practice of spreading the feet wide apart and the irritating attempt to touch the next man’s toes are in conflict with the Sunnah as the aforegoing Shar’i evidences have established.

Conclusion

1. According to the Hambali Math-hab there should be a ‘small’ gap between the feet of the musalli.

2. According to the Maaliki Math-hab, the distance should be moderate, neither together nor so wide apart which is considered repugnant.

3. According to the Shaafi Math-hab, the gap between the feet should be one hand. It is Makrooh to spread the feet wider than this.

4. According to the Hanafi Math-hab, the distance between the feet should be four fingers. This is the Sunnah and the Way of the Salf-e-Saaliheen. The Salafis have no authority from the Salf-e-Saaliheen to substantiate its view of bid’ah.

Comments

In the Hanafi school (also in the Shafi’i school), there are predominantly two views. One is to stand with a gap of four fingers in between one’s feet, as is mentioned in Ibn ‘Abidin’s authoritative commentary of the al-Durr al-Muhtar (1:462). The second view, mentioned in the commentary of Sunan al-Tirmidhi,Ma’arif al-Sunan, is that there is no specified distance to be maintain between one’s feet and it is permissible to stand as one finds comfortable.

The hadith, related by Imam Abu Dawud and others, which is normally used to prove that one must touch their feet to those of the adjacent person, has been misunderstood. The Prophet (upon him be peace) only commands that the Companions straighten their rows.

In some narrations he also commands that shoulders be leveled together. It is the narrator who mentions that the Companions employed the joining of the feet together (and according to the narration in Sunan Abu Dawud, the knees were also linked together) to ensure the straightening of the rows. The Prophet (upon him be peace) did not order this.

Nowadays, since the rows are clearly marked in our masjids, there is no need to link the feet together. Standing with the heels on the marked lines will normally ensure that the rows remain straight and orderly.

Manner of standing in the rows of the jama`ah

It is established from several ahadith that the row should be absolutely straight and no gaps should be left between the worshippers. However, some people insist on spreading their feet and standing in such a manner that their ankles touch the ankles of their neighbour. What is the reality of standing in this fashion?

Those who stand in this way base their practice upon a hadith narrated by Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu). He says: “Once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) faced us and said: “Straighten your rows”. He repeated this thrice. He then said: “By Allah, you must most certainly straighten your rows or else Allah Ta’ala will disunite your hearts”. Hazrat Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu) says: “I then saw the people joining together their shoulders and ankles”. [Abu Dawood, Sahih ibn Khuzaima]

The concluding statement of Hazrat Nu’maan (radhiallahu anhu) is also reported in Sahih Bukhari.

However, upon analysing this hadith, several points come to light: Firstly, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never commanded the joining of the ankles. No hadith has yet been found wherein Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) himself instructed the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) to join their ankles. The Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) had themselves adopted this manner in order to fulfil the command of straightening the saff. Secondly, this hadith clearly mentions that Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu) saw the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) doing this PRIOR to the commencement of the salah. There is no mention of this position being maintained even after the salah had commenced.

Therefore we find that great muhadditheen such as Hafiz ibn Hajar (R.A.) and Allama Shawkani (R.A.) have regarded this as an extreme measure which was occasionally adopted by the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) to ensure that the row is straight.

In fact, a hadith of Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) makes it absolutely clear that this practice was merely a measure adopted BEFORE the salah to ensure the straightening of the row. He says: “If I had to do that (join the ankles) with anyone of them (the tabi’een) today, they would run like wild mules”. [Fath al-Bari, vol.2, pg.176]

This simply means that the taabi’een severely disliked that anybody should join their ankles with them. Several points are understood from this: Firstly, Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) had stopped doing this completely. Had this been a sunnah and not just a manner of ensuring that the saff was straight, it is impossible that Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) would have left it out merely upon somebody disliking it.

Secondly, the taabi’een would never have disliked it if they had observed many of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) continuously practicing upon this. It was only due to the fact that they had not generally observed the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) adopting this procedure that they disliked it. Hence this makes it crystal clear that the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) had only occasionally adopted this practice to ensure the straightening of the saff. It was not a sunnah in itself, otherwise they would never have left it out.

It has already been made clear that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never himself instructed the joining of the ankles, nor is there any mention of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) having maintained this position even IN salah. However, if for a moment we do accept that this position must be adopted during the course of the salah as well, the question is: In which posture of salah must this position be maintained? Must it be maintained during qiyam, ruku, sajdah and qada or in only some of these postures? If one says that the ankles should be joined only in the qiyam posture, on what basis were the other postures excluded? If it is argued that it is difficult to do so in ruku and sajdah, the same could be said for qiyam, since to stand with one’s feet spread apart is naturally awkward and hence it presents a certain amount of difficulty and uneasiness for many people.

In short, this practice is not established as a sunnah of salah. It was merely adopted initially by the Sahaba (radiallahu anhum) BEFORE the commencement of salah to ensure that the rows are straight.

COMMENT

Abul Qaasim Jadli (rahmatullah alayh) said :I heard Nu’maan Bin Basheer (radhiyallahu anhu) say: ‘Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) turned towards the people (the musallis) and say three times: ‘By Allah! Most certainly, you should straighten your sufoof otherwise Allah will create discord in your hearts.’ Thereafter I saw that a man would attach his shoulder to the shoulder of his companion (the one standing alongside), his knee to the knee of his companion and his ankle to the ankle of his companion. (Bukhari & Abu Dawood)

If we take the literal meaning of this hadith which a few people( WAHABIS) take , then we have to join our knee with the knee of the person standing next to us in suhoof, which is PRACTICALLY IMPOSSIBLE if the two person are of different height, because the height of knee from ground will be different for two person of different height.( I really tried this!)

These people who take literal meaning fail to answer thisIn the endeavour to sustain the practice of stretching the legs wide open while performing Salaat, the Salafis have gone to the extreme of adopting this ugly stance even when performing Salaat alone.

The Salafis claim that it is Sunnah to stretch the legs wide apart and for a musalli’s toes to touch the toes of the musalli standing alongside him in the saff. This ludicrous position is imposed by the Salafis on even women who are obliged to stand with their legs wide open. What an ugly, miserable and immodest stance for a woman to adopt? A woman is an object of concealment according to the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). When she has to stretch her legs wide open, she adopts the stance of lewd and shameless women. Throughout Salaat, a woman’s postures are to be constricted — made small and drawn in, not asserted like a man asserts and expresses his actions during Salaat.

COMMENT

Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: Join your sufoof and draw close among yourselves and line up with the necks. Reported by Abu Dawood and Nisai. Authenticated by Ibn Hibbaan. (Bulooghul Maraam)–*I’laaus SunnanSo the hadeeth tells up to line with Necks and not touch necks.

Even if the hadith tells us to LINE NECK ( AND NOT TOUCH) how woould WAHABIS explain this that if two brothers of different height are standing next to each other in a line during salah then their NECK WOULD not be in a straight line, rather the neck of the shorter person will be near the chest of the taller person, making NECKS in zig zag path rather than a straight line!

It is for this reason that the title of a chapter in Sahih al-Bukhari ‘Chapter on the Joining of the Shoulders and Feet Together Whilst Forming the Rows’ has been classified by Hafiz Ibn Hajar to be based on exaggeration. He writes in his commentary Fath al-Bari,

[Imam Bukhari’s] reason for choosing this specific title is to exaggerate (mubalagha) the importance of straightening the rows and filling the gaps in between. (Fath al-Bari2:247).

This means that the narration is not to be taken literally. Imam Shawkani, who is constantly referred to by those who prefer not to follow a school of thought( wahabis) in Islamic jurisprudence, has not taken it for its literal interpretation either. He writes in his bookNayl al-awtar:

[The statement of the Companion] means, place the parts of the body [shoulders, etc.] in line with each other, so that the shoulder of each person performing prayer is in level with the shoulder of the next person. This way everyone’s shoulders, knees and feet will be in a single straight line (Nayl al-awtar3:65*).In clear words, this indicates that the real reason for joining the shoulders and other parts, was to straighten the rows, not that the joining itself is an obligatory act.

COMMENT

Even one of the recent WAHABI scholar (Shaykh Salih al-‘Uthaymin) says this

س234: ما المعتمد في إقامة الصفوف؟ وهل يشرع للمصلي أن يلصق كعبه بكعب من بجانبه؟ أفتونا مأجورين؟الجواب: الصحيح أن المعتمد في تسوية الصف محاذاة الكعبين بعضهما بعضاً، لا رؤوس الأصابع، وذلك لأن البدن مركب على الكعب، والأصابع تختلف الأقدام فيها، فهناك القدم الطويل، وهناك القدم القصير، فلا يمكن ضبط التساوي إلا بالكعب .وأما إلصاق الكعبين بعضهما ببعض فلا شك أنه وارد عن الصحابة –رضي الله عنهم- فإنهم كانا يسوون الصفوف بإلصاق الكعبين بعضهما ببعض ، أي أن كل واحد منهم يلصق كعبه بكعب جاره لتحقق المحاذاة وتسوية الصف، فهو ليس مقصوداً لذاته لكنه مقصود لغيره كما ذكر بعض أهل العلم، ولهذا إذا تمت الصفوف وقام الناس ينبغي لكل واحد أن يلصق كعبه بكعب صاحبه لتحقق المساواة، وليس معنى ذلك أن يلازم هذا الإلصاق ويبقى ملازماً له في جميع الصلاة . ومن الغلو في هذه المسألة ما يفعله بعض الناس من كونه يلصق كعبه بكعب صاحبه ويفتح قدميه فيما بينهما حتى يكون بينه وبين جاره في المناكب فرجة فيخالف السنة في ذلك، والمقصود أن المناكب والأكعب تتساوى

Question: What is the relied-upon position regarding the straightening of the rows (sufuf)? Is it prescribed for the praying person to join his ankle (ka’b) to the ankle of the person next to him? Please give us the fatwa, may you be rewarded.

Answer: That which is correct is that the relied-upon position regarding the straightening of the row is that the ankles should be in line with each other, not the ends of the toes, and that is because the body is supported upon the ankle, and the feet differ in regard to the toes, because some feet are long, and some feet are short. So it is impossible to ensure straightness except by the ankles (i.e. by the ankles being in line with each other).

As for joining the ankles to the ankles of the others, then no doubt this is reported from the Sahabah, radhiyallahu ‘anhum, for they would straighten the rows by joining ankles, that is, every one of them would join his ankle with the ankle of his neighbour to ensure being line, and the straightness of the row. So it is not meant as an aim in itself, but rather as a means of achieving another aim, as some of the people of knowledge have mentioned. Therefore, when the rows are completed and the people are standing, it is befitting for every one of them to join his ankle to the ankle of his companion to ensure straightness. It does not mean that he should continue this joining and remain so for the whole salah.

From the extremism that has occurred with regard to this issue is what is done by some people in that one of them will join his ankle to the ankle of his companion, and he will spread his feet so far apart until there is a gap between his shoulder and the shoulder of his companion, so he will oppose the Sunnah by doing that. But the aim is that the shoulders and ankles should be in line with each other.

Categories: Fiqh, wahabi
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